University of Mindanao Tagum College, Philippines
*e-mail: [email protected]
This descriptive-correlational research examined the teachers' attributes and self-efficacy as predictors to classroom management. The study aims to help teachers, school principals, and future researchers address some classroom management gaps. This study was participated by 200 senior high school teachers of Monkayo, Davao de Oro. The instruments used in gathering the data were adopted, content validated, and reliability tested. The result showed that the extent of teachers' attributes was very great, and the level of teachers' self-efficacy was also very high. As a result, the level of classroom management of teachers was described as very high. The result further showed the significant relationship between teachers' attributes to classroom management. Lastly, this study revealed that teachers' attributes and self-efficacy significantly predict classroom management. Therefore, the study recommends that the elementary school administrators develop programs that equip teachers with the necessary attributes, skills, and passion for the teaching profession and be given more professional growth consideration.
Received: March 16, 2021
Revised: April 06, 2021
Accepted: April 11, 2021
Online: May 16, 2021
teacher attributes, self-efficacy, classroom management, effective teaching, quantitative research, Philippines
The classroom management skills are known to take part in the students' success in learning. However, most of the recurring teachers find classroom management to be a bit of a struggle. Even so, this problem could be addressed if the teachers know how to manage their classrooms effectively. For example, suppose they could create an environment where learning is possible and inviting to everybody. Moreover, students' success in learning new ideas and various activities will depend on the teacher's ability to handle the class while also engaging them in meaningful learning experiences. Furthermore, the teacher's personal and professional backgrounds could highly influence delivering quality education to the learners (Macias, 2018).
Having a cheerful personality and good attributes is one factor that is being considered for a teacher to become effective and efficient in delivering quality education. According to the study, the learners are given equal opportunity to learn and experience new things by the teachers who have positive attributes and pleasing personality as they are willing to do everything to cater to the students' different learning needs. By saying attributes, it includes personal characteristics that someone uses to navigate the journey of his/her specific field of expertise including self-discipline, and professionalism. Besides, having positive character will also set an inviting learning environment where students can freely express their thoughts and ideas without hesitation (Nurius et al., 2017; Shidiq & Yamtinah, 2019). Therefore, the teaching efficacy of a teacher could greatly help establish an organized task with profound cognitive contents while also successfully executing various learning activities that the students should experience.
On the other hand, a teacher's self-efficacy pertains to the teacher's personal and professional beliefs, influencing decision-making and applying the teacher's personal experience and professional knowledge in the teaching and learning environment. Therefore, these play a significant role in creating a learning environment that is very engaging to the learners and is conducive to learning. Moreover, these beliefs are crucial in both the student's learning capability and the teacher's professional behaviour inside the classroom (Khanshan & Yousefi, 2020).
In Monkayo, Davao de Oro Province, it has been observed by the researcher that most teachers rant about how they manage their classrooms. Most teachers say that how the students behave inside the classroom depends on their attributes, how they interact with their students, and their self-efficacy beliefs. Some teachers also say that their students' level of knowledge and maturity affect how they manage their classrooms. The researcher has not studied teachers' Attributes and Self-Efficacy as Predictors of Classroom Management. However, there are many similar studies to this one. However, the researcher was prompted and perceived the need to undertake this study and the urgency to conduct the study to prove the observation of classroom management concerning teacher attributes and teacher self-efficacy. Aside from that, this study also uses different sets of indicators and different group of respondents in the local setting.
The study is anchored to Operant Conditioning Theory, with its proponent Skinner (1957). Accordingly, an individual's learning will be apparent in the overt behaviour, thus observable in the physical environment. As the author posits, when an individual is exposed to different events, some stimuli may trigger behaviour changes. Skinner projected that the proposition of this theory is relevant to classroom management and instructional development. This theory was known because of its contribution to the growing body of knowledge about behavioural explanations involving cognitive phenomena. For that reason, the academic community recognizes its application to teaching and programmed instruction. In support of this, another theory provides anchorage to the academic phenomenon under study. It is the Choice Theory of Glasser (1998). This theory emphasizes the needs for teachers to act as managers to work efficiently to transfer learning to their students. As managers in the classroom, it is part of the management techniques to guide the students to value hard work and obedience. With that, these educators radiate a positive outlook towards work. This theory also supports the claim that students become more active and creative while developing positive relationships as they can freely express their thoughts in the learning set-up, thus paving the way to mastery and success.
Moreover, it is worthy of recognizing the concept produced in the study conducted by Yaratan and Muezzin (2016) when they elaborated on the roles teachers play in society. Educators are regarded to have a strong influence on society, and so, they are expected to possess specific professional attributes and behaviour that helped them carry out their jobs. As suggested, these teachers need to be dedicated to their profession and must foster positive teacher-student interaction. These characteristics are helpful to ensure that as they perform work, they are cultivating a love for the teaching and learning process. These characteristics are evidence of the manifestation of happiness and self-fulfilment.
On the other hand, Friedmann and Kass (2002) projected another concept yet still supports the claim of self-efficacy, highlighting the two factors. First, it is on professional efficacy in the teaching profession wherein teachers are encouraged to nurture motivation and interrelations with students. Second, the other factor is the school contest, which pertains to the involvement of these educators in various activities and securing their slot in the decision-making body of the academic political system.
Finally, the phenomenon under investigation is incoherence to the concept of classroom management presented by Mitchell, Hirn and Lewis (2017), wherein the author highlighted its significant role in academic performance. As emphasized, the teacher has firm control over the class to set orderliness and safety while prioritizing instruction and learning. He acknowledged the challenges teachers face in the significant areas of classroom discipline, effective teaching, teacher's reward system, and delegation of authority.
In this study, the conceptual paradigm is presented in figure 1. This study has two independent variables and one dependent variable. The first independent variable, teacher attributes (Yaratan& Muezzin, 2016), has the following indicators: teacher-student interaction characteristics, characteristics of teachers related to the teaching profession, and humanistic and justice characteristics of teachers. Teacher-student interaction characteristics in this study refer to how the teachers communicate with their students; characteristics of the teachers related to the teaching profession in this study pertains to maintaining the teacher's professionalism from personal appearance to organizational skills and preparedness for each day, and humanistic and justice characteristics of teachers in this study, is characterized by respecting students and creating a welcoming learning environment.
Figure 1. Conceptual Framework of the study
The second independent variable is teacher's self-efficacy (Friedmann & Kass, 2002) with class context and school context indicators. The class context in this study refers to the teacher's belief about his/her capability to manage responsibilities within the four corners of the classroom. School context in this study includes factors underlying teachers' psychological well-being, including personal accomplishment, job satisfaction, and commitment.
The dependent variable is classroom management (Piaro, 2018), with the following indicators classroom discipline, effective teaching, teachers reward system and delegation of authority. Classroom discipline in this study refers to strategies a teacher uses to manage student behaviours and attitudes during instructional time. Effective teaching in this study requires the implementation of creative and innovative teaching strategies in order to meet students' individual needs; teacher reward system in this study refers to stimulate learning and motivate good behaviours; delegation of authority in this study, defined as subdivision and sub-allocation of powers to students in order to achieve effective results.
This study was a quantitative non-experimental research design using causal effects in describing the relationship between two identified variables and determining the direction and magnitude of such a relationship. The descriptive correlation method was deemed appropriate when the goal is to depict the status of the situation as it existed at the time of the study to explore the causes of a particular phenomenon. For correlational research, the concern is to establish the relationship between variables under study. It can be two or more variables of the same population. The data treatment should come from the same population, and the variables need to be assessed whether a statistical relationship exists between them. In defining the feature of correlational research, these two or more variables are measured and manipulated whether the collected data is quantitative or categorical (Gravetter & Wallnau, 2004).
Quantitative data were collected to pursue the variables under investigation with specific statistical treatments in identifying the relationships between variables. Thus, a descriptive survey approach was used to target the target respondents to answer sets of questionnaires that served as a research tool in data collection. The focus of the study was to determine the level of teacher's attribute, teacher's self-efficacy and classroom management among senior high school teachers.
The study's findings were specific to the context of the public secondary schools in Monkayo, Davao de Oro Province. Thus, inclusion criteria set in this academic endeavour, the applications of the findings are limited to the scope and sample. However, possibilities of resemblance to other systems may still be incurred. Presented in Figure 2 is the map of the Philippines highlighting the municipality of Monkayo in the Province of Compostela. Moreover, Figure 3 presents the vicinity map of the respondents in which public secondary schools are located in Monkayo.
Monkayo, one of the municipalities in the province of Davao de Oro, is the first class of its kind. Officially known as the Municipality of Monkayo, and its lands occupied by 94,908 inhabitants, which was according to the 2015 census record. The vast land of plains and valleys are cultivated agriculturally and tilled with rice and banana. It is also popularized by its gold producing spot, the Mt. Diwalwal. Its gold deposits are acknowledged to be contributors to claiming this part as the golden ore of the Davao Region. The centre barangay is in the Poblacion area, which is a highly developed rural town centre. It is situated just 75 miles away from Davao City, Mindanao's regional centre. It is 19 miles away from Nabunturan, the provincial centre. The respondents are senior high school teachers coming from the municipality of Monkayo.
Figure 2. Map of the Philippines highlighting Monkayo in Davao de Oro
Population and Sample
Since only a small number of senior high school teachers in the municipality, purposive sampling utilizing complete enumeration was used to select the respondents. Therefore, the subjects of the study were senior high school teachers coming from different specializations in Monkayo. Shown in Table 1 were the respondents of the study who are senior high school teachers for the school year 2019 – 2020. The participants were not subjected to harm in any ways whatsoever, respect for the dignity of the participant was prioritized, and full consent was obtained from the participants before the study, decent level of confidentiality of the research data was ensured, and any misleading information, as well as representation of primary data findings in a biased way, was avoided. Thus, the participants could withdraw anytime if they felt threatened during the conduct of the study.
Table 1. Distribution of Respondents
The researcher used an adopted questionnaire for the independent and dependent variables to suit the context of the study. The gathered data from the discourse was correlated to the literature to aid in the questionnaire construction validated by the panel of internal and external validators. The respondents will be given a questionnaire that contains the teachers' demographic information and three sets of a questionnaire for the independent and dependent variables. The first set of questionnaires dealt with teachers' attributes as perceived by the senior high school teachers with indicators of teacher-student interaction, characteristics of the teachers related to the teaching profession, and humanistic and justice characteristics of teachers. The instrument used in this study was adopted from the study of Yaratan and Muezzin (20016) entitled "Developing a Teachers Characteristics Scale".
The original questionnaire was modified to contextualize the school setting. The original items were simplified or paraphrased to gain a better understanding from the respondents. It was content validated by the panel of experts. It has also undergone the test of validity and reliability and was measured using Cronbach Alpha. For each item, the respondents were asked to rate the level of teacher's attributes using the five-point Likert Scale anchored at (5) Very High (4) High (3) Moderate (2) Low and (1) Very Low. In evaluating the level of perceived teacher's attribute, the five orderable gradations with their respective range of means and description were considered for Teacher's Attributes (Table 2).
Table 2. Qualitative Interpretation for Teachers Attributes Scale
The second set of the instrument embarked with teacher's self-efficacy among senior high school teacher. It was composed of two indicators, namely: class context and school context. The research instrument for this variable was adopted from a survey questionnaire taken from the study of Friedman and Krass (2002) entitled "Teacher Self-efficacy: A Classroom-organization Conceptualization". The original questionnaire was modified to contextualize the school setting. It was content validated by the panel of experts. It has also undergone the test of validity and reliability and was measured using Cronbach Alpha. For each item, the respondents were asked to rate the level of perceived teacher's self-efficacy using the five-point Likert Scale anchored at (5) Very High (4) High (3) Moderate (2) Low and (1) Very Low. In evaluating the level of perceived teacher's self-efficacy, the following five orderable gradations with their respective range of means and descriptions were considered for self-efficacy (Table 3).
Table 3. Qualitative Interpretation for Self-Efficacy Scale
The third set of the instrument embarked with classroom management skills among the high school teachers. It was composed of four indicators: classroom discipline, effective teaching, teachers' reward system, and delegation of authority. The instrument used in this study was adopted from the study of Piaro (2018) entitled "Classroom Management and Students' Academic Performance in Public Secondary Schools in Rivers State". The original questionnaire was modified to contextualize the school setting. It was content validated by the panel of experts. It has also undergone the test of validity and reliability and measured using Cronbach Alpha. For each item, the respondents were asked to rate the level of classroom management skills using the five-point Likert Scale anchored at (5) Very High (4) High (3) Moderate (2) Low and (1) Very Low. In evaluating the level of classroom management skills, the following five orderable gradations with their respective range of means and descriptions were considered for classroom management (Table 4):
Table 4. Qualitative Interpretation for Classroom Management Scale
Data Collection Procedure
After acquiring the approval of the conduct of this study from the panel members, the following procedures were observed to pursue the realization of the research objectives set beforehand. First, the researcher has the questionnaires validated by internal and external validators. Second, the researcher asked permission from the division office to conduct the study to the different senior high school institution of Monkayo. Third, the approval letter was sought to accommodate the researcher to administer the survey questionnaire to the study's respondents upon approval.
Moreover, the researcher made another letter to conduct the study to teachers in their respective schools in Monkayo. Likewise, the researcher asked for approval from the School heads to distribute survey questionnaire to their respective teachers. Finally, the researcher personally handed the questionnaire and explained the research tool and its purpose.
Furthermore, the researcher retrieved the survey questionnaire after the respondents had finally answered all the items. Finally, the researcher tallied and tabulated all the data gathered from the respondents and subjected them to statistical analysis. Then, the statistical data was analyzed and interpreted. With the data, the conclusion was drawn, and recommendations were formulated based on the study's findings.
This study employed the following statistical tools to process the answers to the questions at a 0.05 level of significance. The responses to the items in the questionnaires were tallied, tabulated and interpreted accordingly. The statistical tools used for data analysis and interpretations were the following:
Mean; This was used to determine the level of teacher attribute, teacher self-efficacy and classroom management among senior high school teachers.
Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient; This statistical tool was employed to determine the relationship between teacher attribute and classroom management; and teacher self-efficacy and classroom management among senior high school teachers.
Linear Regression Analysis; This statistical tool was used to determine teacher attribute and teacher self-efficacy towards classroom management among senior high school teachers.
Some significant ethical issues and concerns had specific ramifications for this quantitative inquest. Such issues and concerns arose primarily from the methodology involved in this study. The ethical contests that were pertinent to this research concern the right to conduct the study, confidentiality, and anonymity.
In observance of ethical standards, the following study protocol assessments were observed and employed by the researcher to ensure data collection management while following the standardized criteria such as, but not limited to:
Voluntary participation; The teachers of the selected schools were given the discretion to participate without any form of consequence or penalty, or loss of benefits. Therefore, after the purpose and benefits of the study were described and presented to the participating schools, the rights of the respondents to contribute to the body of knowledge were carefully considered and agreed upon. Therefore, the voluntary participation of respondents in the research was necessary. Moreover, participants had the right to withdraw from the study at any stage they wished to do.
Privacy and confidentiality. The collected personal information from the respondents was kept in private. It is to ensure anonymity as well as confidentiality. Furthermore, the researcher ensured that the details reflected on the study's findings do not divulge any specific representation from any of the respondents.
Informed consent process. It is with utmost assurance that the respondents in the study are not blindly informed of their voluntary participation. The researcher explained without deceit that when respondents are not comfortable in answering the items in the survey questionnaire, he or she may skip nor free to discontinue his or her participation. It was also part of the interview orientation that there will be no penalties that respondents will pay or loss of benefits that respondents are entitled to receive in any case of discontinued participation. However, it was made clear that their contribution could be of vital help to the growing body of knowledge about the variables under investigation.
If any of the participants did not follow procedures and the study compromised, opportunity, time, and money were lost. The researcher's cultural or professional status, excessive compensation, or implied increase in health care did not play a role in inducing the participant's decision. However, it was essential to ensure that the participant has understood all the information provided. Thus, informed consent provided sufficient information to make an informed decision while presenting this information so that the participant understood.
Recruitment. In the selection process of the qualified respondents, careful observation of the inclusive criteria was employed. It was done to make the respondents understood how they qualified to be the units of this study. Respondents were informed about the questionnaire contents as the item statements can prove how they could relate to the variables under study. Thus, they were provided with sufficient information on how they can help the present academic endeavour and gave them the complete discretion to decide whether to participate or not without any pressure.
Risks. The researcher assured the respondents that the conduct of this study would not curtail any high risk to their profession, even physical discomfort, pain, injury, illness or disease. Even with human participants involved in the conduct of this study, the procedures were checked not to produce any adverse effect on the mental states of the respondents, which avoids the possibilities of suffering from anxiety and depression. After the conduct of the survey, the researcher made certain that respondents will not feel any guilt, shock and loss of self-esteem and altered behaviour and socio-economic risks.
Benefits. This study benefited the senior high school teachers of Monkayo District in acquiring information about the relationships between teachers' attributes, teacher self-efficacy and classroom management. The findings provided in this study may help educators in creating a productive and cooperative learning environment. Likewise, the Department of Education, specifically targeting the curriculum planners, may benefit from assimilating classroom management skills so that teachers will be equipped and better contribute to improving students' academic performance.
Plagiarism; With the procedures observed in creating this academic paper, this study has no prints of any duplicates of other's works. As part of the process, the paper was fed to a plagiarism detector like the Grammarly of the Turnitin software and had passed the quality required.
Fabrication; The study was conducted with the respondents described in the inclusion criteria, and the results emerged from the data collected during the administration of the research instrument. Thus, no researcher-made results were generated in the process.
Falsification; The literature collected was paraphrased based on contexts and was not phrased to fit the projected assumptions. The theories supporting this study have no evidence of twisted statements nor overclaiming.
Conflict of Interest (COI); The study has no hidden purpose of using the results for secondary interest, especially in financial or academic gains. Furthermore, the researcher has no personal interest in ingraining colleagues, especially supervisors who may become involved in the conduct of this study.
Deceit; The study has no intention of providing the respondent's misleading details that may put them in any potential harm. The respondents were well informed about the fact of the study, and there was no misleading or hiding the truth or promotes a belief, concept or idea that is not true.
Authorship; The researcher of the study is a graduate with a Bachelor in Elementary Education. She has followed the conduct of the study protocols with solid recommendations made by her adviser. The study abided by the standards set by the University of Mindanao Ethics Review Committee in the observance of the guidelines of ethical considerations. The research instruments used have undergone pilot-testing for its reliability tests to ensure consistency of the research tool.
It has been noted that the standard deviation was ranged from 0.45 - 0.75, which is less than the typical standard deviation for a 5-point Likert scale. However, it signifies that the ratings obtained in this study are close to the mean, indicating a minor variation of the respondents' responses.
Level of Teacher's Attributes among Senior High School Teachers
Table 4 shows the level of teacher's attributes among senior high school teachers in terms of teacher-student interaction, characteristics of teachers related to the teaching profession, and humanistic and justice characteristics of teachers among senior high school teachers. The overall mean is 4.43, which is described as very high. It indicates that teacher's attributes are much observed among senior high school teachers. Among the three indicators, humanistic and justice characteristics of teachers got the highest mean of 4.57, described as very high, followed by teacher-student interaction, which posted a mean of 4.37, also described as very high and finally, characteristics of teachers related to the teaching profession which attained a mean of 4.34, still with a verbal description of very high.
Level of Teacher's Self-efficacy among Senior High School Teachers
Presented in Table 5 is the level of teacher's self-efficacy as experienced by the senior high school teachers in terms of class context; and school context. The overall mean is 4.27, with a verbal equivalent of very high. It indicates that teacher's self-efficacy is very much experienced among senior high school teachers. Between the two indicators, school context scored a mean of 4.40 with a verbal description of very high, which is higher than class context, which attained a mean of 4.15 and a verbal description of high.
Table 6. Level of Self-Efficacy among Senior High Teachers
Level of Classroom Management among Senior High School Teachers
Presented in Table 6 is the level of classroom management as observed by the senior high school teachers in terms of classroom discipline, effective teaching, teachers and reward system, and delegation of authority. The overall mean is 4.36, with a verbal equivalent of very high. It indicates that classroom management is very much observed among senior high school teachers. Among the four indicators, effective teaching got the highest mean of 4.47 with a verbal description of very high. It is followed by classroom discipline with a mean of 4.39 and a verbal description of very high. Next are the teachers and reward system with a mean of 4.34 and a verbal description of very high. Lastly, the delegation of authority got the lowest mean of 4.31but is still described as having a very high level of classroom management.
Table 7. Level of Classroom Management among Senior High School Teachers
Significance on the Relationships of the Domains of Teacher's Attributes to Classroom Management Among Senior High School Teachers
Table 7 presents the three (3) indicators that show the significant relationship between the level of Teacher's Attributes and Classroom Management among senior high school teachers. First, the r-value and p-value of characteristics of teachers related to the teaching profession; and classroom management are 0.791 and 0.001, translating to a high positive correlation. Second, the r-value of teacher-student interaction is 0.702 with a p-value of 0.001, which shows a high positive correlation. Lastly, the r-value of humanistic and justice characteristics of teachers is 0.650 with a p-value of 0.001 and still shows a high positive correlation.
*Significant at 0.05 level of significance
Since the table shows that the indicators teacher-student interaction, characteristics of teachers related to the teaching profession, and humanistic and justice characteristic of teachers have the probability level of 0.001, which is less than the 0.05 level of significance, the null hypothesis, which states that "there is no significant relationship between teacher's attributes and classroom management among senior high school teachers", is not accepted. The high interdependence of the variables shows that the three indicators: Teacher-student Interactions; Characteristics of Teachers Related to the Teaching Profession; and Humanistic and Justice Characteristics of Teachers have significant relationships towards Classroom Management.
Significance on the Relationships of the Domains of Teacher's Self-efficacy towards ClassroomManagement among Senior High School Teachers
Table 9. Test of Significant Relationship between Teacher's Self-efficacy and Classroom Management among Senior High School Teachers
*Significant at 0.05 level of significance
Regression Analysis on how the Domains of Teacher's Attributes Predicts Classroom Management among Senior High School Teachers
Table 9 shows the regression analysis on the influence of the domains of Teacher's Attributes to Classroom Management among senior high school teachers. The table shows the F-ratio of 134.6 and a p-value of 0.001, which is less than the 0.05 level of significance. Thus, it allows the researcher to reject the null hypothesis, stating that there is no domain in teacher's attributes that significantly predicts or determines classroom management among senior high school teachers. Thus, a teacher's attributes significantly predict or determine the classroom engagement among senior high school teachers.
The r-value of 0.821 indicates a strong positive relationship between teacher's attributes and classroom management among senior high school teachers. The coefficient of determination which is 0.674, connotes that 67.40% of the variation in the level of classroom management experienced by the senior high school teachers could be attributed to the level of teacher's attributes that they felt. The rest, 32.60%, is the chance variation, indicating that classroom management among the senior high school teachers could be attributed to other factors that are not included in the study.
Table 10. Regression Analysis on the Influence of Teacher's Attributes and Classroom Management among Senior High School Teachers
Dependent Variable: Classroom Management, r=0.821, F-ratio=134.6, R2 = 0.674, p-value=0.001
The indicator characteristics of teachers related to the teaching profession have a beta of 0.502* and a p-value of 0.001, which is less than the level of significance at 0.05. Therefore, it indicates that characteristics of teachers related to the teaching profession are a domain of teacher's attributes which has a significant influence on classroom management. Moreover, the said indicator attained the highest beta than the other domains, which implies that this is the most substantial domain among the three.
Also, teacher-student interaction has a beta of 0.213* and a corresponding p-value of 0.001, which is less than the significance level at 0.05. It follows characteristics of teachers related to the teaching profession as the indicator with the highest beta. It indicates that characteristics of teachers related to the teaching profession as a domain of teacher's attributes also has a significant influence on the classroom management observed by the senior high school teachers. Lastly, teachers' humanistic and justice characteristics have a beta of 0.196* and a corresponding p-value of 0.001, which is less than the significance level at 0.05. It indicates that teachers' humanistic and justice characteristics also significantly influence classroom management experienced by the senior high school teachers.
Regression Analysis on how the Domains of Teacher's Self-efficacy Predicts Classroom Management among Senior High School Teachers
Table 10 shows the regression analysis on the influence of teacher's self-efficacy domains on Classroom Management among senior high school teachers. The table shows the F-ratio of 134.6 and a p-value of 0.001, which is less than the 0.05 level of significance. Thus, it allows the researcher to reject the null hypothesis, stating that there is no domain in teacher's self-efficacy that significantly predicts or determines classroom management among senior high school teachers. Here, it is found out that a domain in teacher's self-efficacy significantly predicts or determines the classroom engagement among senior high school teachers.
The r-value of 0.787 indicates a strong positive relationship between teacher's self-efficacy and classroom management among senior high school teachers. The coefficient of determination which is 0.619, connotes that 61.90% of the variation in the level of classroom management experienced by the senior high school teachers could be attributed to the level of teacher's self-efficacy that the senior high school teachers felt. The rest, 39.10%, is the chance variation, indicating that classroom management among the senior high school teachers could be attributed to other factors not included in the study.
Table 10. Regression Analysis on the Influence of Teacher's Self-efficacy and Classroom Management among Senior High School Teachers
Dependent Variable: Classroom Management, r=0.787, F-ratio=159.1, R2 = 0.619, p-value=0.001
The indicator class context has a beta of 0.492* and a p-value of 0.001, which is less than the significance level at 0.05. Therefore, it indicates that class context is a domain of teacher's self-efficacy, which significantly influences classroom management. Furthermore, the said indicator attained a higher beta than the other domain school context, which only attained a beta of 0.384. Therefore, it implies that between the two, class context is a more substantial domain than school context.
The research investigates the predictors of classroom management among Senior High School teachers based on teacher's attributes and self-efficacy. As measured on the level, it was found that the level of teacher's attributes among senior high school teachers is very high. It indicates that the senior high school teachers much observe teacher's attributes. The results conform with the findings of Raza and Irfan (2018), where they elaborated that when teachers possess the best and professional attributes in the delivery of lesson, it will positively impact the students' achievement. These attributes mirror the high teaching quality, which is proven to improve students' performance in class and life, while educators hone their teaching skills over the years. In addition, this is parallel to the statement of Klassen and Kim (2017), saying that when it comes to improving student learning activities, teachers have severe responsibilities in doing their part to realize such goal. It has been noted that a teacher's teaching performance is a significant contributing factor in student learning and achievement. In addition to the list would be parent involvement, the curriculum design and the learning environment. As emphasized, student learning is improved with teacher's commitment to go the extra mile in transferring knowledge to their learners as they acknowledge the role to play that whatever outcomes the students will produce, they always have something to do with it.
Also, in consonance with Sclafani (2015), it has been a debate on how cognitive and non-cognitive attributes of teachers affect teacher effectiveness, which most researchers in educational psychology tackle. Authors have argued that in the UK, the implementation of Initial Teacher Education (ITE) programs always emphasize the cognitive (which includes the intellectual capability) and the non-cognitive (which comprises the personality traits and attitudes, principles and values) attributes of the applicants. On the other hand, various authors mentioned that the other ways of revealing their teacher applicants' cognitive and non-cognitive attributes are based on teacher's attributes. As part of the Initial Teacher Education (ITE) programs, orientation and putting the candidates into test based on real-world problems are relevant to the profession's practice.
Furthermore, the result agrees with the statement of Klassen, Durksen, Patterson, & Rowett (2017), saying that when identifying the non-cognitive attributes of teachers, self-efficacy and personality tests can be used as measuring variables. As noted, these factors encompass the nature of teaching, which then affects the nature of learning. However, it was a question of whether the processes involved in the ITE can be used as predictors of teaching effectiveness when other factors could come into play. Meanwhile, as defined to be the ability of the teachers to perform academically in the content of the lessons, cognitive attributes are no question to positively affect the student learning. The measures are evident as these include the abilities of an educator to transfer learning most efficiently, given that the teachers possess knowledge, which they can share with the class. On the other hand, non-cognitive attributes were regarded to be difficult to measure given that they cannot be systematically assessed, and biases may occur in the process.
In the context of self-efficacy, it was also revealed that the teacher's self-efficacy, as observed by the senior high school teachers, is very high. All of the indicators for this variable also reflected a descriptive equivalent of very high. Therefore, it implied that the teacher's self-efficacy is very much observed among senior high school teachers. Following Cansoy and Parlar (2018), the study of teacher self-efficacy is about measuring teachers' set of skills and capabilities to carry out the teaching job to positively affect student learning. It includes the planning phase in delivering the lesson and how it prepares himself before playing his role in the learning environment. It also includes organizing the teaching tasks and implementing the rules and learning activities to facilitate educational goals. As pointed out, teacher self-efficacy is about how these educators can produce the desired effect, which can be evident in the student progress or performance. As always observed in various studies conducted in this line of interest, teachers who have high self-efficacy also desire to find the most effective strategies to improve students' achievement. On the other hand, those teachers with low self-efficacy do not meet their educational goals and struggle to realize student engagement and participation.
In contrast, Klaeijsen, Vermeulen, & Martens (2018) viewed self-efficacy using a different lens when they emphasized that there are also dangers with teachers who have high self-efficacy as they tend to be overwhelmed with the possibilities that are not always in line with the educational goals of their colleagues. From the learner's perspectives, students find it hard to cope with teachers' standards with high capabilities and set barriers in facilitating the transfer of knowledge. In order to resolve such impending conflict, teachers with high self-efficacy are constantly reminded of the pace of learning of some of the students and sometimes designated to hold academic offices to ensure that cognitive attributes are still applied to the improvement of the academic procedures. On the other hand, most of these teachers are also designated to be advisers of high performing students in the class to nurture excellence in the entire academic community.
Further, according to Ozfidan, Machtmes and Demir (2014), teachers judge their capacity, thus providing the concept of self-efficacy. It is specific and a personal journey. It goes in coherence with the idea of Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory when he pointed out that teachers' self-efficacy can be seen on how well they organize their tasks and how they execute the courses of action to meet their goals. Results in various academic papers support the claim that teachers' self-efficacy positively affects students' learning, yet without considering teacher judgment on the occasion. Instead, they are solely focused on performing the teaching job that whatever progress they can contribute to their achievements is regarded as the reward of their hard work.
In classroom management, the level of classroom management as observed among senior high school teachers is very high. All the indicators for this variable also reflected a descriptive equivalent of very high. Therefore, it implied that classroom management is very much observed among senior high school teachers. The result is by Mitchell's statement, et al. (2017), which states that teachers use classroom management to supervise the learning environment. It permits the teachers to impose rules and regulations inside the classroom as part of the management techniques. It also tries to correct students' behaviours toward accomplishing academic tasks, which can help the learners achieve their goals. Classroom management may include the teaching styles of teachers that match the learning style of learners. The main goal of classroom management is to create a conducive area where teaching and learning can be done smoothly, eliminating the barriers such as negative behaviours of learners and teachers' performance.
Meanwhile, Cayak and Cetin (2015) put forth that it is right to acknowledge that there is a venue for social interaction in a classroom environment. Thus teachers might lose control of the event, with interplaying behaviours of students taking place. More to that is the varying pace of learners to grasp the lesson discussed, which then challenges more the teacher on his or her facilitation of knowledge transfer. Absenteeism is another thing that can be part of a teacher's struggle who is concerned about student's learning progress. On the other hand, classroom management allows everything to happen, yet applying the techniques to regulate the adverse effects of the situation in a learning environment. It helps the teachers deal with the realities of a classroom set-up while armouring these educators with the suitable approaches to prevent class disruptions from occurring.
It is crucial to apply those classroom management techniques in order to create an effective classroom. It allows the teachers to control the direction of the class by profiling each learner on their intelligence, capabilities, family background, personality traits and characteristics, which can help in curriculum designing. The learning activities that will be crafted will be based on each learner's profile to be more contextualized, thus promoting an effective student-centred learning environment. It also emphasized that in a classroom, the teachers use management techniques to improve the learners' cognitive attributes and promote the holistic growth of every student. Classroom management paves the way to a positive learning ground, thus preventing the negative behaviour of some students.
Similarly, Wolff, Jarodzka, and van den Bogert (2016) also stated that classroom management combines classroom information with educational information. It means that teachers have tasks that are beyond the four walls of a classroom. It is welcoming the reality that there will be diverse types of learners in one classroom set-up, which teachers need to deal with every day of practising the profession and that one classroom set-up may be different from others. This multidimensionality is evident as well as simultaneous events can take place. Promptness is also part of the observation with varying paces on how each learner learns. It is why part of classroom management is getting an overview of the description of the learning environment, what it is and what the teachers would want it to be, embedding all the teaching strategies matched with learning activities. The reality inside a classroom may be complicated for some teachers to manage, but with the right sets of skills, capabilities and tools, learning can still occur.
The study results showed a significant relationship between teacher's attributes and classroom management among senior high school teachers. The computed R-value indicated a strong positive relationship between the variables. The positive R-value indicates a direct correlation between the two variables that further indicates that as the teacher's attributes go high, the classroom management that the senior high school teachers experience also goes high. Conversely, as teacher's attributes go down, their classroom management also goes down. The result is also in alignment with the result of a study on classroom management wherein it was revealed that classroom management is all about planning and executing the plan, monitoring the progress and constantly evaluating the approach applied. It is not a complex method, but there is no standard in doing it. It is simply because the plans are contextualized to the learner's learning style, profile, training and personalities. It can also be included in the equation the teacher's preferences in the teaching strategies to be employed and the class' direction in achieving academic goals. Classroom management enables the teacher to filter the unwanted behaviours among learners and allow a positive classroom atmosphere. By doing these, teachers will discover their potentials and bring out the best in their students. Classroom management is doing simple things like decorating the classroom, arranging the chairs and talking to learners, but with an effective teacher doing it with good intentions, the learning environment can be a breeding ground for achievers (Sieberer-Nagler, 2016).
Similarly, it is also congruent to the other studies that proved that teacher performance as he or she used classroom management techniques will reflect their characteristics. Thus, this means a line that links personality to teaching effectiveness that cannot be discarded. Indeed, these are apparent in many results of various studies conducted wherein personality can be a significant predictor of effective teaching. As explained, a teacher's personality can be rated along with his or her effectiveness in delivering instruction. (Yaratan & Muezzin, 2016).
The study results showed a significant relationship between teacher's self-efficacy and classroom management among senior high school teachers. The computed R-value indicated a strong positive relationship between the variables. The positive R-value implies that classroom management among senior high school teachers increases as the teacher's self-efficacy goes high. Similarly, as the teacher's self-efficacy goes low, their classroom management also goes low.
According to Yaratan & Muezzin (2016), positive teacher's self-efficacy can also promote successful classroom management techniques and produce productive learners. It is on self-efficacy that teachers develop trust in their abilities to perform and practice the chosen profession. As these teachers tend to be more positive in all their undertakings, it also greatly influences their student's performance at school. They become epitomes of hard work, discipline and perseverance. They become an inspiration to the academic community where they belong.
Piaro (2018) contention when he stated that a teacher becomes effective when he or she manages well the students' misbehaviour. Teachers should not avoid nor forward the concern to supervisors, but with sets of abilities, the teachers will know the proper measures on how to deal with such misconducts. As the author asserted, it will all boil down to his or her assessment of self-efficacy level. As projected by Garcia-Moya (2020), the higher the belief of teachers in their self-efficacy, the higher their possibilities to perform well in managing their classrooms. They are expected to embody the values of compassion, firm commitment and control over their belief system, specifically in performing their job in the chosen profession. Teachers' low self-efficacy is likely to be associated with ineffective classroom management, struggles in dealing with student's misconduct, and usually observed to utilize prohibitive ways to teach. Thus, this puts the learner's academic progress into crucial conditions that should be addressed right away.
The regression analysis on the influence of the domains of teacher's attributes revealed that teacher-student interaction characteristics, characteristics of teachers related to the teaching profession, and humanistic and justice characteristics of teachers have a significant influence on classroom management among senior high school teachers. Furthermore, it has been found out that characteristics of teachers related to the teaching profession are the most substantial domain compared to others. One study revealed that personality characteristics could affect teaching job performance, which is the case in almost all professions. In focusing on teaching as a profession, the teachers' personality is associated with their preferred learning style, the level of their job satisfaction, the burnout case, teaching quality, and teacher can improve performance and student achievement (Kim, Jörg & Klassen, 2019). Moreover, Pischetola and Miranda (2020) also stated that teachers' convictions, hones and demeanours are vital for understanding and progressing educational forms. They are closely connected to teachers' methodologies for adapting to challenges in their day-by-day professional life and their common well-being, and they shape students' learning environment and impact understudy inspiration and accomplishment. Thus, it is essential to focus on improving self-efficacy to improve the teaching practices as they are strongly correlated. These variables interplay, which should be monitored from time to time as these can make and break the academic journey of learners.
The regression analysis on the influence of teacher's self-efficacy on classroom management among senior high school teachers revealed that both the domains class context and school context significantly influence classroom management among senior high school teachers. The result is in line with Dilekli and Tezci (2016) study, which states that there is a thick line that binds teachers' self-efficacy beliefs and their employment of teaching strategies inside the classroom. In talking about techniques in the delivery of instruction, that is part of classroom management, thus connecting the dots among these variables involved. Furthermore, research shows that teachers who value their own belief of self-efficacy value also facilitate learning and promote student-centered education, emphasizing the involvement and engagement of students in the entire learning process.
It is related to the statement of Lazarides, Watt, and Richardson (2020) that classroom management self-efficacy has been characterized as teachers' judgments of their capability to effectively perform classroom administration errands within the confront of troubles, for case, by collaboration with people and bunches, setting classroom rules, desires and rules, and controlling troublesome behaviour. The appeared positive relationship between self-efficacy and classroom management was directed by early-career over the top demands. Suggestions are laid out for teacher instruction and school administration. With that being stated, it only implies that when one teacher has a firm belief in self-efficacy, that teacher knows his or her attributes and potentials, given him or her the confidence to perform work. Meanwhile, those with low self-efficacy belief tend to show less interest in their involvement in school activities, thus not persistent in managing the effective classroom, which causes detrimental effects to learner's academic journey (Karakus, Akman & Ergene, 2018).
Referring back to the results of the research objectives, the researcher has concluded that teacher's attributes in terms of teacher-student interaction characteristics, characteristics of teachers related to the teaching profession, and humanistic and justice characteristics of teachers influence classroom management. The findings revealed that senior high school teachers very much experience teacher's attributes in terms of teacher-student interaction characteristics; characteristics of teachers related to the teaching profession; and humanistic and justice characteristics of teachers. Furthermore, the level of teacher's self-efficacy in class context is high, and school context is also very much experienced by senior high school teachers. Meanwhile, classroom management in terms of classroom discipline, effective teaching, teachers reward system and delegation of authority, content knowledge and skills, instructional practices and professional responsibility are also very much observed among senior high school teachers.
Furthermore, the results also revealed a significant relationship between all of the teacher attributes and classroom management domains. Therefore, it can also be said that all indicators of teacher's self-efficacy have a significant relationship to classroom management.
After a profound consideration of the possible implications of the findings and conclusion of the study, the researcher came up with several recommendations on how to improve classroom management through enhancing teacher's attributes and teacher's self-efficacy. The school administration may give aspects like characteristics of teachers related to the teaching profession more consideration to improve attributes. For this, in macro-level school, administrators can conduct seminar workshops to introduce the teachers to learning strategies to develop their lessons more effectively. Furthermore, another aspect of learning to improve teacher's efficacy is the mastery of class context. It is another consideration by the school administrator to equipping teachers in teaching content and pedagogy to be more efficient in delivering lessons to the learners. Finally, this study recommends investigating other external components such as individual and family variables to get a clearer picture of other factors that will impact students' behaviour, which are determinants of behavioural issues within the classroom.
The author would like to express her sincere thankfulness to the UM Tagum College-Graduate School for this academic journey in line with the master's program.
Funding and Conflicts of Interest:
The authors declare that there is no funding and conflicts of interest for this research.
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