1State Islamic Institute of Bengkulu, Indonesia
2MI Nurul Huda Kota Bengkulu, Indonesia
3Universitas Muhammadiyah Palembang, Indonesia
*e-mail: *[email protected]
This article aims to reveal that the learning of Islamic education and scientific-based character is an attempt to neutralize the assumptions about the inability of teachers to develop students to their full potential. Likewise, the assumptions about the learning of Islamic education and manners only have ritual, ethical and moral dimensions so that students can verbally understand the teachings of Islam and are skilled at implementing them, but they do not appreciate the depth of their meaning. This research is qualitative; the informants are religious teachers and students through interview and observation techniques. The research results show that implementing Islamic education and character education through a scientific approach explores the field to find concrete examples of how to empathize with others and be devoted to parents and teachers. Furthermore, learning with a scientific approach, especially on students' character matter, has promising implications for shaping student morals for the better. It is because students are required to practice directly the phenomena that arise from the existing learning material. Therefore, experiments carried out through observation and making simple reports and then discussed in class groups are practical approaches to remember, understand, and practice the messages in the material delivered.
Received: December 29, 2020
Revised: February 02, 2021
Accepted: February 28, 2021
Online: May 31, 2021
Islamic education learning, character building, scientific approach
Learning through a scientific approach is a learning process that is designed so that students actively construct concepts, laws, or principles through stages of observing (to identify or find problems), formulate problems, propose or formulate hypotheses, collect data with various techniques, analyze data, draw conclusions and communicate concepts, laws or principles found (Machin, 2014). According to Suastra in Marjan (2014), the nature of science has three components: product component, process, and attitude. Science as a product has meaning as a collection of facts, concepts, principles, and laws about natural phenomena. Thus, science is a structured and systematic series to discover concepts, principles, laws, and natural phenomena. At the same time, science as an attitude is expected to be able to shape character.
The based on the nature of science, it is implied that what is desired in learning is how students can behave and show the character they have while trying to identify themselves and others towards the character that each individual owns. Therefore, the implementation of the scientific approach in the Learning of Islamic Education is inseparable from the role of the teacher; the teacher part of the learning component has a vital role and position in improving the quality of education. The based on the results of the initial study, it is known that learning objectives in the curriculum of 2013 are tied to core competencies consisting of KI 1 aiming at aspects of spiritual attitude, KI 2 on social attitudes, KI 3 on aspects of knowledge, and KI 4 on aspects of skills. Instrument steps to get moral values and personality not written in detail in the learning implementation plan. Thus it can be seen that problems in the field of achievement that are not by the desired target must be achieved. The progress of the modern era also has an impact on the development of morals or behaviour. Every individual needs a self-controller in thinking attitude, acting, that is, religiosity. Religiosity in the current school environment also has many problems, including the decline in the quality of religious life in the school environment, the existence of permissive behaviour and the promiscuity of school-age students, the lack of religious appeal in student life, and the weakening of the carrying capacity of religious culture in the school environment (Reza, 2013).
Based on the above theory, it is clear that implementing a scientific approach is considered essential to be applied to the learning of Islamic education in schools. With this learning, students must know the material of Islamic Education and contextualize their knowledge by the times. Furthermore, the link in the learning process at school requires teachers to consciously and educate children so that physical and spiritual development work in synergy to form good character. The scientific-based learning in the curriculum of 2013 implemented by teachers in schools neutralizes assumptions about the inability of religious teachers to develop students' affective and psychomotor potentials to the maximum because Islamic Education learning takes precedence over cognitive abilities that can be answered in the results of this study. Likewise, the assumptions about Islamic education of morality only provide material with ritual dimensions and is far from spiritual, ethical, and moral enrichment. Students can verbally understand Islamic teachings and are skilled at implementing them but do not appreciate the depth of their meaning.
Islamic education and character play a role in realizing national education goals in developing three aspects: cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. In addition, it also develops student religiosity that is closely related to the purpose of education in cultivating the faith, piety of the noble (Prastowo, 2015: 137). Religion is a spiritual, moral, ethical, and social value informing character or character for students (Jalaluddin, 2011: 319). The progress of the modern era also has an impact on the development of morals or behaviour. Therefore, every individual needs a self-controller in thinking attitude, acting, that is, religiosity. Religiosity in the current school environment also has many problems, including the decline in the quality of religious life in the school environment, the existence of permissive behaviour and the promiscuity of school-age students, the lack of religious appeal in student life, and the weakening of the carrying capacity of religious culture in the school environment (Reza, 2013: 2). The based on the above problems, the researchers conducted in-depth research on the implementation of learning with a scientific approach to the subject of Islamic Education and manners in elementary schools in the Transmigration Territories of Musi Banyuasin.
The Scientific Based Learning
Nurul Zuriah in Marjan (2014) said that scientific approach is learning that uses scientific and inquiry approaches, where students play a direct role both individually and in groups to explore concepts and principles during learning activities, while the teacher's task is to direct the learning process undertaken by students and provide corrections to concepts and the principles obtained by students. A scientific approach is a learning approach emphasizing activities on students through observing, asking, reasoning, trying, and forming networks in learning activities at school. A scientific approach is a learning approach that provides opportunities for students to explore and elaborate on the material being studied broadly; in addition, it provides an opportunity for students to actualize abilities through learning activities designed by teachers (Rusman, 2015: 110).
The scientific method generally involves observers or observations that are needed to formulate hypotheses or collect data. In addition, the scientific method is generally based on the exposure of data obtained through observations or experiments. Therefore, the experimental activity can be replaced with obtaining information from various sources (Sani, 2014: 92). The learning process in the curriculum of 2013 for all levels is carried out using a scientific approach based on The Roles of Education and Culture Minister, 2013. A learning approach centered on students who have the scientific approach criteria as follows:
1. Learning material based on facts or phenomena can be explained with logic or specific reasoning, not limited to guesswork, fantasy, legend, or fairytale.
2. Teacher explanation, student response, and educative interaction between teacher and student are free from prejudice, subjective thinking, or reasoning that deviates from the flow of logical thinking.
3. Encourage and inspire students to think critically, analytically, and precisely identify, understand, solve problems, and apply learning material.
4. Encourage and inspire students to think hypothetically in seeing differences, similarities, and links to each other from the learning material.
5. Encourage and inspire students to understand, apply, and develop rational and objective thinking patterns in responding to learning material.
6. Based on concepts, theories, and empirical facts that can be accounted for.
7. Learning objectives are formulated in a simple and straightforward but exciting system of presentation (Fauziah, 2017: 37-39).
The based on the explanation above, learning with a scientific approach has the following characteristics:
2. It involves the science process skills in constructing concepts, laws, or principles.
3. Involve potential cognitive processes in stimulating the development of the intellect, especially the high-level thinking skills of students.
4. Can develop the character of students (Estuhono et al., 2018).
The scientific approach is relevant to several learning theories, including Bruner's theory, Piaget's theory, and Vygotsky's theory (Handini et al., 2019).
1. Bruner's learning theory
Bruner's learning theory is also called the theory of discovery learning. In this case, Bruner revealed that the subjects taught were not to produce a small life library about these subjects but rather to make students think for themselves, consider problems, and acquire knowledge.
2. Piaget's learning theory
Piaget's theory states that learning is related to the formation and development of schemes. Schema is a mental structure or cognitive structure through which a person intellectually adapts and coordinates the surrounding environment (Wardono 2019). The scheme never stops changing; a child's scheme will develop into an adult's scheme. The process that causes schematic changes is called adaptation. This adaptation process can be done in two ways, namely assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation is a cognitive process by which a person integrates a stimulus in the form of perceptions, concepts, laws, principles, or new experiences into the scheme already in his mind. Accommodation can form new schemes that can match the characteristics of existing stimuli or modify existing schemes to match the characteristics of existing stimuli (Wardono 2019).
3. Vygotsky's learning theory
Vygotsky, in his theory, states that learning occurs when learners work or learn to handle tasks that have not been learned, but those tasks are still within reach of ability, or the task is within the zone of proximal development. Thus, the area lies between the current level of child development defined as a problem-solving ability under the guidance of more capable adults or peers (Varelas, 2009: 83-86). The scientific approach was first introduced in America at the end of the 19th century (Arlianty et al., 2017), emphasizing a formalistic laboratory approach that led to scientific facts (Hodson, 2018: 135). This scientific approach makes it easy for teachers or curriculum developers to improve the learning process by breaking down the process into detailed steps or stages containing instructions for students carrying out learning activities (Yuliyanto et al., 2020 & Varelas, 2009: 17). It is the basis for the development of the curriculum of 2013 in Indonesia. In practice, some make scientific approaches, as some make it as a method. However, the characteristics of a scientific approach are no different from the scientific method.
The scientific approach is the learning process that can be paired with a scientific process. Therefore the curriculum of 2013 mandates the essence of a scientific approach to learning. The scientific approach is believed to be the golden bridge of students' attitudes, skills, and knowledge. In approaches or work processes that meet scientific criteria, scientists put forward inductive reasoning rather than deductive reasoning. Deductive reasoning looks at general phenomena to then draw specific conclusions. On the contrary, inductive reasoning puts specific evidence in the broader relation of ideas. The scientific method generally places a unique phenomenon with specific and detailed studies to formulate general conclusions (Hilda, 2016: 142).
The scientific method refers to investigative techniques for a phenomenon, gaining new knowledge, or correcting and integrating prior confirmation. To be called scientific, the search method (method of inquiry) must be based on evidence from objects that can be observed, empirical, and measurable with specific principles of reasoning (Daryanto, 2014: 194). Therefore, scientific methods generally contain a series of data collection activities through observation or experimentation, processing information or data, analyzing, formulating, and testing hypotheses.
Learning based on scientific approaches is more effective than traditional learning. The results prove that in traditional learning, information retention from teachers is 10 percent after 15 minutes, and acquisition of contextual understanding is 25 percent. In learning based on a scientific approach, information retention from teachers is more than 90 percent after two days, and acquisition of contextual understanding is 50-70 percent (Daryanto, 2014: 196).
Based on the above opinion, it can be concluded that, in essence, a learning process carried out in classrooms can be paired as a scientific process. For this reason, the curriculum of 2013 is mandated about the essence of the scientific approach to learning activities. Furthermore, there is a belief that a scientific approach is a form of golden bang for affective development, psychomotor, and students' cognitive development.
The learning process in the curriculum of 2013 for junior and senior high school or equivalent is carried out using a scientific approach. The learning process touches on three domains, namely attitudes, knowledge, and skills. In the learning process based on a scientific approach, the realm of attitude takes the transformation of substance or teaching material so that students "know why." The realm of skills is to transform substance or teaching material so that students "know-how." Finally, the realm of knowledge engages in the transformation of substance or teaching material so that students "know what." The result is an increase and balance between the ability to be a good human being (soft skills) and humans who have the skills and knowledge to live properly (hard skills) from students, which include competency aspects of attitude, skills, and knowledge (Daryanto, 2014: 198).
The learning objectives with a scientific approach are based on the advantages of the approach. Some learning objectives with a scientific approach are:
1. To improve the ability of the intellect, especially students' higher-order thinking skills.
2. To shape students' abilities in solving problems systematically.
3. The creation of learning conditions where students feel that learning is a necessity.
4. Obtaining high learning outcomes.
5. To train students in communicating ideas, especially in writing scientific articles.
The curriculum of 2013 emphasizes the modern pedagogic dimension in learning, which uses a scientific approach. The scientific approach includes observing, asking, trying, processing, presenting, concluding, and creating for all subjects (Aprilia & Mulyaningsih, 2014). The method of observing is very beneficial for the fulfilment of students' curiosity. So the learning process has high meaningfulness. Moreover, in student observation, there is a relationship between the object being analyzed and the teacher's learning material. Therefore, students can directly tell the conditions required in the Basic Competence and indicators and what subjects can be integrated with available media (Trianto, 2017: 81).
Students are not easy to ask if they are not confronted with exciting media. Teachers must be able to inspire students to want and be able to ask questions. When teachers ask questions, the teacher must guide and guide students to ask questions well. When the teacher answers questions, the teacher encourages students to become good listeners. Teacher questions are intended to obtain verbal responses (Rusman, 2017).
The term "reasoning" in the learning process framework with a scientific approach adopted in the curriculum of 2013 illustrates that teachers and students are active actors. The emphasis is on many things, and the situation of students must be more active than the teacher. The reasoning is thinking logically and systematically on empirical facts that can be observed to obtain conclusions in knowledge. The reasoning is meant scientific reasoning, although non-scientific reasoning is not always useless. The reasoning is thinking logically and systematically on empirical facts that can be observed to obtain conclusions in knowledge. Reason (associating) refers to association learning theory, namely the ability to group various ideas and associate various events to then incorporate them into memory fragments in the brain and experiences stored in brain memory interacting with previous experiences (associations) (Al-Syaibany, 2012: 211).
The trying is a process skill to develop knowledge about the natural environment by using scientific methods and scientific attitudes in solving the problems it faces every day. To obtain authentic learning outcomes, students must conduct experiments, especially for material/substance that is suitable, and the application of the testing activities is intended to develop various domains of learning objectives (attitudes, skills, and knowledge). The application of experimental or attempted methods is intended to develop various learning goals, namely attitudes, skills, and knowledge. Actual learning activities for this, namely determining themes or topics according to essential competencies according to curriculum requirements, studying ways of using tools and materials that are available and must be provided, learning relevant theoretical basis and the results of previous experiments, conducting and observing experiments, record phenomena that occur, analyze (Nurhikmayati & Jatisunda, 2018). Present data, draw conclusions on the results of experiments, and make reports and communicate the results of experiments (Rusman, 2017: 82).
Forming a network consists of three steps, namely, concluding, presenting, and communicating. Concluding can be done together as a group, or it can be done alone after listening to the results of information processing activities. Presenting can be presented in the form of a written report. Written reports can be used as one of the materials for a portfolio of groups or individuals, and although the tasks are done in groups, the results of the recording should be done by each individual so that they can be included in the student's portfolio file. Finally, students can communicate the work results arranged together in groups or individually at the end of the activity. Teachers can clarify so that students know whether what has been done is correct or something needs to be improved. Communicating activities can be directed as confirmation activities (Fauziah, 2017). So, learning with a scientific approach is a learning process that is designed so that students actively construct concepts, laws, or principles through stages of observing (to identify or find problems), formulate problems, propose or formulate hypotheses, collect data with various techniques, analyzing data, drawing conclusions and communicating "discovered" concepts, laws or principles.
The scientific approach is intended to provide understanding to students in knowing, understanding various materials using a scientific approach, that information can come from anywhere, at any time, not depending on the direction of information from the teacher. Therefore the expected learning conditions encourage students to find out from various sources through observation and not just be informed (Kemendikbud, 2014: 163). Applying a scientific approach to learning involves process skills such as observing, classifying, measuring, predicting, explaining, and concluding. In carrying out these processes, teacher assistance is needed. However, the teacher's assistance must be increasingly reduced by the more mature students or the higher class of students.
The Student Character Conduct
Understanding of character education can be divided into two, namely conceptually and operationally. Nurul Zuriah in Setyowati (2009: 36) explained the conceptual understanding of character includes the following matters:
1. A conscious effort to prepare students to become fully human beings who are of noble character in all their roles now and in the future;
2. Efforts to form, develop, enhance and maintain student behaviour so that they are willing and able to carry out their life tasks in harmony, harmony, and balance (physically and spiritually, material-spiritual and individual);
3. Educational efforts to shape learners become virtuous individuals through noble activities of guidance, habituation, teaching and training, and exemplary.
It can be concluded that character education is an effort to equip students through guidance, teaching, and training during their growth and development as a provision for their future, in order to have a clear conscience, good character, and maintain decency in carrying out obligations towards God and others creature. The primary purpose of moral education in Islam is that humans are in the truth and always on the straight path, the path that has been set by Allah (Mahmud, 2004). Seeing from the end goal of each worship is the formation of piety. To be pious means to carry out all religious orders and abandon all religious prohibitions. It means staying away from evil deeds and doing good deeds. God's commands are aimed at good works and prohibitions on doing evil. So they were being cautious means noble character, doing good, and having good morals.
The purpose of moral education in Islamic thought is to form the righteous person in the worship of Allah. So it is because worship and spiritual training are also attitude training and moral discipline. This purpose is in line with God's word in the Quran, surah of Ad-Dharariyat: 56: "And I created not the spirits of men and men, but that they might worship me".
Ibn Miskawaih, as quoted by Suwito (2004: 82) in his book, concludes that the purpose of moral education is the existence of an inner attitude that can spontaneously induce to produce all good deeds to attain perfection attain perfect happiness. The purpose of Moral education formulated by Umari (2005) is to gain a legacy to distinguish between good and bad deeds. Second, to obtain the Taufiq, its actions are by the guidance of the Apostle and common sense. Third, to get guidance means to enjoy doing good and praised things and to avoid bad things.
Daulay (2004: 220), in his book, states that the purpose of moral education is to develop the values, attitudes, and behaviours of students who exemplify high morals; in other words, in moral education, the values to be shaped are moral values. It is the inculcation of noble moral values into the learners' self embedded in their behaviour. The based on the above thinking, the purpose of moral education can be understood as to make the learner a man of high moral character, whether in interacting with God or with fellow humans and the environment.
According to Cahyoto, as quoted by Zuriah (2008), the function or use of character education is: First, students understand the structure of character education in the scope of ethics for their development in science. Second, students have a noble basis of behaviour for typical behaviour patterns based on rights and obligations as citizens. Third, students can search for and obtain character information, process it, and make decisions in dealing with real problems in society. Furthermore, Fourth, students can communicate and collaborate with others to develop moral values.
This type of research is field research using descriptive approaches, so that this research applies a qualitative approach. Qualitative methods are based on several considerations: First, adjusting qualitative methods is more accessible when dealing with multiple realities; second, this method presents the nature of the relationship between researchers and respondents directly; and third, this method is more sensitive and more adaptable to the many sharpening influences together and to the patterns of values encountered (Winarto, 2020).
Through qualitative research, researchers can recognize subjects and feel what they experience in everyday life. Therefore, qualitative research is expected to produce an in-depth description of speech, writing, and behaviour observed from an individual, group, community, or a particular organization in a particular context setting that is examined from a whole, comprehensive, and holistic perspective. The respondents of this research are Elementary School students in the Transmigration Territories of Musi Banyuasin.
Researchers use two ways or techniques in collecting data in the field, namely interviews and observations. The technique used in analyzing research data is qualitative descriptive. This technique involves processing research results, which starts from compiling, grouping, analyzing and interpreting data in patterns and relationships between concepts and formulating them in the relationships between other elements to understand and understand young people. The data that has been collected is then analyzed with the data reduction stage, data presentation and taking conclusions and verification.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Scientific Approach to Islamic Education Learning in Transmigration Territories
The scientific approach is also called the scientific approach. It is because the learning process can be paired with a scientific process. Therefore the curriculum of 2013 mandates the essence of a scientific approach to learning. The scientific approach is believed to be the golden bridge of students' attitudes, skills, and knowledge. In approaches or work processes that meet scientific criteria, scientists put forward inductive reasoning rather than deductive reasoning. Deductive reasoning looks at general phenomena to then draw specific conclusions.
On the contrary, inductive reasoning puts specific evidence in the broader relation of ideas. The scientific method generally places a unique phenomenon with specific and detailed studies and then formulates general conclusions (Hilda, 2016). The scientific method refers to investigative techniques for one or several phenomena or symptoms, gaining new knowledge, or correcting and integrating prior confirmation. To be called scientific, the method of inquiry must be based on evidence from observable, empirical, and measurable objects with specific principles of reasoning (Daryanto, 2014). Therefore, scientific methods generally contain a series of data collection activities through observation or experimentation, processing information or data, analyzing, formulating, and testing hypotheses. A scientific approach is a learning approach emphasizing activities on students through observing, asking, reasoning, trying, and forming networks in learning activities at school. A scientific approach is a learning approach that provides opportunities for students to explore and elaborate on the material being studied broadly; in addition, it provides an opportunity for students to actualize abilities through learning activities designed by teachers (Rusman, 2015).
Based on various theories, the theory that best fits the research findings is Vygotsky's theory, stating that learning occurs when learners work or learn to handle tasks that have not been learned. However, those tasks are still within the range of abilities, or the task is within the zone of proximal development area lies between the current level of child development which is defined as problem-solving abilities under the guidance of more capable adults or peers. It can be seen from the research findings that the application of religious learning by using a scientific approach in Elementary School in the Transmigration Territories of Musi Banyuasin with procedures as expected by the curriculum of 2013. Students under the guidance of two religious teachers can observe students responding to the lessons given by the teacher as well as asking questions, doing explorations to the field or short film observations provided by the teacher to find concrete examples of how to empathize with others describe and find conclusions about the importance of empathy for others and dedication to parents and teachers.
Based on the study results, the application of scientific learning in Islamic education subjects has been aligned with procedures as expected by the curriculum of 2013, in terms of observing student learning activities, how students respond to lessons by asking questions by learning material, conducting exploration by being asked to go directly to the field to find concrete examples of how to empathize with others. For example, visiting friends affected by a disaster or other things are used as the discussion material. It is where each group presents their analyzed results. They try to make conclusions about the importance of empathy for others. Likewise, with the principles of filial piety to parents and teachers, they pay close attention to the teacher's film media and are asked to make conclusions from what they have observed.
Student Characteristics in Transmigration Territories
Presentation of manners from the data in the field, that the characteristics that must be possessed to produce quality resources. Character is more focused on character, temperament, behaviour, or in other words, etiquette and ethics. Morality in the Islamic religion is used to declare morals, and in Latin, it is often referred to as morality. Morals are identical to morals because they have the same meaning, and only the source of the language is different. Both have the same discourse, which is about sound. While character education can be interpreted as planting moral values, manners, and behaving well in others, in its development, character education involves children's social relations and involves the knowledge, feelings, and behaviour of children in the realm of character education. However, this goal is not balanced with the level of government policy, and it is proven that the 1984 school curriculum has explicitly eliminated the subjects of character from subjects in schools, so aspects related to the character are likely to be forgotten (Setyowati, 2009).
Taking the opinion of Zuriah in Setyowati (2009) explains the conceptual understanding of character includes the following matters: first, conscious effort to prepare students to become fully human beings who are virtuous in virtue in all their roles now and in the future; second, Efforts to form, develop, improve and maintain student behaviour so that they are willing and able to carry out their life tasks in harmony, harmony and balance (physically, spiritually-materially and individually); third, educational efforts to shape learners become whole individuals who are virtuous in character through guidance, habituation, teaching, and training as well as role models. The theory used in finding reality in the field about the student's character of Elementary School in Transmigration Territories of Musi Banyuasin students as an implication of Islamic learning with a scientific approach, among others, is Emmanuel Kant's theory, namely: Respect for fellow humans and universal moral values. More detailed moral education objectives as follows: First, Helping children to be able to develop sound and proper behaviour; Second, helping children to be able to improve their ability to reflect autonomously, control themselves, increase mental and spiritual freedom and be able to criticize the principles and rules that apply; Third, helping children to internalize moral values and norms in the context of facing life; Fourth, helping children to adopt universal-fundamental principles of life values as a platform for moral judgment in determining a decision; and Fifth, helping children make correct, moral and wise decisions.
The research findings show that the learning of Islamic education with a scientific approach, especially in student character in Elementary School in the Transmigration Territories of Musi Banyuasin, has promising implications for shaping student morals better. It is because students are required to practice directly the phenomena that arise from the existing learning material. Therefore, experiments carried out through observation and making simple reports and then discussed in class groups is a practical approach so that they understand, remember and practice the messages in the material, so that they respect the opinions of others, are sensitive to the calamities that befall others, especially to both parents and teachers and behave according to religious norms and customs.
Implementation of Islamic education learning using a scientific approach with procedures as expected by the curriculum of 2013. Students under the guidance of two teachers observe student learning activities in responding to the lessons given by teachers properly, such as asking questions, conducting explorations in the field, or short film observations given by the teacher to find concrete examples of how to empathize with others is analyzed and found conclusions about the importance of empathy for others and be devoted to parents and teachers.
Islamic education learning with a scientific approach, especially on students' character, has promising implications for shaping student morals for the better. It is because students are required to practice directly the phenomena that arise from the existing learning material. Therefore, experiments carried out through observation and making simple reports and then discussed in class groups is a practical approach so that they understand, remember and practice the messages in the material, so that they respect the opinions of others, are sensitive to the calamities that befall others, especially to both parents and teachers and behave according to religious norms and customs.
Funding and Conflicts of Interest:
The authors declare that there is no funding and conflicts of interest for this research.
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