Main Article Content

Abstract

This article provides a theoretical contribution to the contemporary debates regarding the legitimacy and effects of supplementary tutoring, also known as shadow education. Shadow education is notably pervasive in South Korea, and accounting for high rates of domestic expenditure and increasing time demands on young people’s lives.  The paper traces the historical and cultural reasons for the widespread uptake of shadow education amongst young students in the South Korean context and problematises what it means to be educated by juxtaposing leading scholars’ perceptions of the fundamental aims of education. Delving into the reality of shadow education whilst also revealing the disruptive nature of this common place practice, the paper concludes by highlighting the need for further empirical research to counterbalance the largely unsubstantiated beliefs and anecdotal evidence regarding its purposes

Keywords

shadow education South Korea supplementary education tutoring cram schools

Article Details

How to Cite
Howard, N.-J. (2021). Critical Review: A Theoretical Examination of Shadow Education in South Korea. International Journal of Asian Education, 2(3), 429–438. https://doi.org/10.46966/ijae.v2i3.229

References

  1. Aurini, J., Dierkes, J., Davies, S., & Wiseman, A. (2013). Out of the shadows. Emerald Publishing Limited.
  2. Bernstein, B. (1975). Class and pedagogies: visible and invisible. Educational Studies, 1(1), 23–41. https://doi.org/10.1080/0305569750010105
  3. Bray, M. (1999). The shadow education system: Private tutoring and its implications for planners. Paris: IIEPUNESCO
  4. Bray, M. (2006). Private supplementary tutoring: comparative perspectives on patterns and implications. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 36(4), 515–530. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057920601024974
  5. Bray, M. (2009). Confronting the shadow education system? What government policies for what private tutoring? Paris: U. N. Educ. Sci. Cult. Organ. Int. Inst. Educ. Plan Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001851/185106e.pdf
  6. Bray, M. (2010). Researching shadow education: Methodological challenges and directions. Asia Pacific Education Review, 11(1), 3–13. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12564-009-9056-6
  7. Bray, M. (2013). Shadow education: Comparative perspectives on the expansion and implications of private supplementary tutoring. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 77, 412–420. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.03.096
  8. Bray, M. & Lykins, C. (2012). Shadow education: private supplementary tutoring and Its implications for policy makers in Asia. Asian Development Bank, and Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre (CERC).
  9. Byun S.Y. (2014). Shadow education and academic success in Republic of Korea. In H. Park & K. Kim (Eds.), Korean education in changing economic and demographic contexts (pp. 39–58.) Springer.
  10. Chapman, D. W., & Bray, M. (1999). The shadow education system: private tutoring and its implications for planners. Economics of Education Review (Vol. 20). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7757(01)00017-6
  11. Choi, H. & Choi, Á. (2016). Regulating private tutoring consumption in Korea: Lessons from another failure. International Journal of Educational Development, 49, 144–156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2016.03.002
  12. Dang, H. & Rogers, F. H. (2008). How to interpret the growing phenomenon of private tutoring: Human capital Deepening, inequality increasing, or waste of resources? World Bank Research Observer, 23(2), 161–200.
  13. Dawson, W. (2010). Private tutoring and mass schooling in East Asia: Reflections of inequality in Japan, South Korea, and Cambodia. Asia Pacific Education Review, 11(1), 14–24. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12564-009-9058-4
  14. Fielding, M. & Moss, P. (2011). Radical education and the common school: A democratic alternative (Foundations and futures of education). Routledge.
  15. Han, Y., & Lee, S. (2016). Heterogeneous relationships between family private education spending and youth academic performance in Korea. Children and Youth Services Review, 69, 136–142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2016.08.001
  16. Kang, S.W. (1 Feb. 2010). Korea is heaven for illegal private English tutoring. The Korea Times. Retrieved from: http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/nation/2010/02/117_60083.html
  17. Kim, S. & Lee, J. (2010). Private tutoring and demand for education in South Korea. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 58(2), 259-296. https://doi.org/10.1086/648186
  18. Kwok, P. (2004). Examination-oriented knowledge and value transformation in East Asian cram schools. Asia Pacific Education Review, 5(1), 64–75.
  19. Lee, C. J. (2005). Korean education fever and private tutoring. KEDI Journal of Educational Policy, 2(1), 99–107.
  20. Lee, C. J., Lee, H., & Jang, H. M. (2010). The history of policy responses to shadow education in South Korea: Implications for the next cycle of policy responses. Asia Pacific Education Review, 11(1), 97–108. https://doi.org/0.1007/s12564-009-9064-6
  21. Lee, M. K. (2014). Multicultural education in Republic of Korea: Social change and school education. In Kim, K., & Park, Hyunjoon (Eds.) Korean education in changing economic and demographic contexts (Education in the Asia-Pacific region, Vol. 23)
  22. Lee, S. & Shouse, R. C. (2011). The impact of prestige orientation on shadow education in South Korea. Sociology of Education, 84(3), 212–224. https://doi.org/10.1177/0038040711411278
  23. Lee, Y. (2010). Views on education and achievement: Finland’s story of success and South Korea’s story of decline. KEDI Journal of Educational Policy, 7(2), 379–401.
  24. OECD. (2011). Education at a Glance 2011: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing, Paris.
  25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/eag-2011-en
  26. Oh, I. (2010). Education and development: Why are Koreans obsessed with learning? Comparative Sociology, 9(3), 308–327. https://doi.org/10.1163/156913209X12499527665422
  27. Park, H., Byun, S. & Kim, K. (2011). Parental involvement and students’ cognitive outcomes in Korea: Focusing on private tutoring. Sociology in Education, 84(1), 3–22. https://doi.org/10.1177/0038040710392719
  28. Pring, R., Hodgson, A. & Spours, K. (2009). Education for all: The future of education and training for 14–19-year-olds. Routledge.
  29. Reiss, M.J., & White, J. (2014) An aims-based curriculum illustrated by the teaching of science in schools. The Curriculum Journal, 25, 76-89. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585176.2013.874953
  30. Young, M. (2015). What are schools for? In M. Young & J. Miller, Eds. Curriculum and the Specialisation of Knowledge: Studies in the Sociology of Education (p.105–114.) Routledge.