Main Article Content


The study aims to investigate whether collaborative strategic reading (CSR) strategies can improve higher-order thinking skills (HOTS) of students. It is an experimental design using pre-test and post-test as an instrument. Research data was obtained by giving a reading test in one of the public vocational high schools in Surabaya, Indonesia. These test data were analyzed using independent sample T-test and paired sample T-test in SPSS. Results showed that Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) could improve higher-order thinking skills for students. Based on data analysis results, t count was found to be larger than t table. Moreover, the result of the paired-sample t-test also indicated a significant difference between pre-test and post-test scores of experimental students. Sig. Sig. (2-tailed) equals.000. To sum up, the strategy benefits students in enhancing higher-order thinking skills for students.


Collaborative strategic reading higher-order thinking skills reading comprehension

Article Details

How to Cite
Susanti, A., Retnaningdyah, P., Ayu, A. N. P., & Trisusana, A. (2020). Improving EFL Students’ Higher Order Thinking Skills Through Collaborative Strategic Reading in Indonesia . International Journal of Asian Education, 1(2), 43–52.


  1. Armstrong, M. (2009). A Handbook of Human Resource Management | M. Armstrong.
  2. Cohen, D. K. (1988). Contributing to Educational Change: Perspectives on Research and Practice. 1–45.
  3. Gardner, H. (1999. (, 1999). Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st Century. - PsycNET.
  4. Heong, Y. M., Yunos, J. M., Othman, W., Hassan, R., Kiong, T. T., & Mohamad, M. M. (2012). The Needs Analysis of Learning Higher Order Thinking Skills for Generating Ideas. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 59, 197–203.
  5. Jailani, J., Sugiman, S., & Apino, E. (2017). Implementing the problem-based learning in order to improve the students' HOTS and characters. Jurnal Riset Pendidikan Matematika, 4(2), 247.
  6. Khonamri, F., & Karimabadi, M. (2015). Collaborative Strategic Reading and Critical Reading Ability of Intermediate Iranian Learners. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 5(7), 1375.
  7. King, F. J., Goodson, L., & Rohani, F. (1998). Assessment & Evaluation: Higher Order Thinking Skills. Center for Advancement of Learning and Assessment, 18, 176. Retrieved from
  8. Pallant, J. (2010). Survival Manual.
  9. Retnawati, H., Hadi, S., & Nugraha, A. C. (2016). Vocational High School Teachers' Difficulties in Implementing the Assessment in Curriculum 2013 in Yogyakarta Province of Indonesia. International Journal of Instruction, 9(1), 33–48.
  10. Seacrist, K. M. (2012). The effect of collaborative strategic reading for 4th Graders with learning disabilities.
  11. Seman, S. C. (2017). Teachers' Challenges In Teaching And Learning For Higher Order Thinking Skills ( HOTS ) In Primary School. 7(7), 534–545. 534.545
  12. Semercioğlu, M. S., Kıroğlu, K., & Tuncer, K. (2020). The Effect of Collaborative Strategic Reading Model on Fourth Grade Students ’ Understanding Skills in Informative Texts İşbirlikçi Stratejik Okuma Modelinin İlkokul Dördüncü Sınıf Öğrencileri nin Bilgilendirici Metinleri Anlama Becerisine Etkisi. 9, 155–167.
  13. Setyarini, S., Muslim, A. B., Rukmini, D., & Yuliasri, I. (2018). Thinking critically while storytelling : Improving children's s HOTS and English oral competence. (June).
  14. Zohar, A. (2008). Teaching thinking on a national scale: Israel's pedagogical horizons. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 3(1), 77–81.