Main Article Content


This study emphasizes findings from literature reviews that aimed to describe and present the current teaching strategies in Music education. These teaching strategies are one of the needed primary skills of Music teachers to address the learning challenges, competencies, and diverseness of the existing curriculum, help them to explore the needs of the students, and give them a framework of what could be the best and appropriate strategy in delivering a lesson. This study employed a descriptive method to gather information about present conditions through a library method and literature review. The data were analyzed using explanatory synthesis. Based on the literature review, the researcher identified four well-known teaching strategies in Music education: the Carabo-Cone Method, Dalcroze Method, Kodaly Method, and Orff Schulwerk Approach. The researcher used four criteria in synthesizing reviews such as the proponent, foundation, philosophy, and methodology. Conclusion of the results and discussions, the four teaching strategies also varied in four indicators, yet similarly focused on using the senses for holistic growth and development and providing all students with the opportunity to be successful. The quality of education depends mostly on the part of the teacher. The different Music teaching strategies serve as a guide to fulfilling the purpose satisfactorily that a teacher and a student needs. It is recommended to analyze its implications towards different modes of learning as global education facing numerous challenges in terms of economic crisis, pandemic, and educational incapability and inequalities that could affect the educational system.


approach Carabo-Cone Dalcroze Kodály method Music education Orff teaching strategy

Article Details

How to Cite
Tabuena, A. C. (2021). Carabo-Cone, Dalcroze, Kodály, and Orff Schulwerk Methods: An Explanatory Synthesis of Teaching Strategies in Music Education. International Journal of Asian Education, 2(1), 9–16.


  1. Aburayya, A., Marzouqi, A., Ayadeh, I., Albqaeen, A., & Mubarak, S. (2020). Evolving a Hybrid Appointment System for Patient Scheduling in Primary Healthcare Centres in Dubai: Perceptions of Patients and Healthcare Provider. Retrieved from
  2. Atabug, A. C. (1975). A philosophical basis for music in teacher education. The Philippine Society for Music Education Retrospect. Retrieved from
  3. Campbell, P. S. (2008). Musician and teacher. (New York). W.W. Norton and Company. Retrieved from
  4. Carabo-Cone, M. (1959). The playground as music teacher: An introduction to music through games. Harper & Brothers, Publishers. Retrieved from
  5. Carabo-Cone, Madeleine. (1969). A Sensory-Motor Approach to Music Learning. Book I - Primary Concepts. Retrieved from
  6. Choksy, L. (1981). The Kodály context: Creating an environment for musical learning. Englewood Cliffs. Prentice-Hall. Retrieved from
  7. Cooper, K. S. (2014). Eliciting Engagement in the High School Classroom: A Mixed-Methods Examination of Teaching Practices. American Educational Research Journal, 51(2), 363–402.
  8. Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. SAGE Publications. Retrieved from
  9. Department of Education. (2019). Policy Guidelines on the K to 12 Basic Education Program. Department of Education. Retrieved from
  10. Dikkaya, A., & Kayalar, D. (2019). Music teaching through the approach similar to that of native language learning. Retrieved from
  11. Estrella, E. (2018a). Learn some popular methods for teaching music to children. ThoughtCo. Retrieved from
  12. Estrella, E. (2018b.). The Dalcroze method: A primer. ThoughtCo. Retrieved from
  13. Estrella, E. (2019a). The Kodaly method: A primer. ThoughtCo. Retrieved from
  14. Estrella, E. (2019b). The Orff approach to Music education for children. ThoughtCo. Retrieved from
  15. Landis, B. (1972). The eclectic curriculum in American music education: Contributions of Dalcroze, Kodaly, and Orff. Music Educators National Conference.
  16. Mead, V. H. (1996). More than mere movement: Dalcroze eurhythmics. 38-41. Music Educators Journal, 82(4).
  17. Murray, M. D. (2006). Communicating Explanatory Synthesis (SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 3520158). Social Science Research Network. Retrieved from
  18. Music & History. (2019). Carl Orff. Retrieved from /8183
  19. Orff, C., & Keetman, G. (1950). Musik für kinder: Reime und spiellieder. Schott. Retrieved from
  20. Orford, E. et al. (2013). Orff approach. The Canadian Encyclopedia, Historica Canada. Retrieved from
  21. Rothstein, E. (1982). Carl Orff, teacher and composer of “Carmina Burana,” dead at 86. The New York Times. Retrieved from
  22. Sappe, S. (2020). Differences in Knowledge Science in Islamic Education Philosophy Perspective. International Journal of Asian Education (IJAE), 1(1), 1–8.
  23. Stanley, T. D. (2001). Wheat from Chaff: Meta-analysis as Quantitative Literature Review. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 15(3), 131–150.
  24. Strickland, D. S., & Morrow, L. M. (1989). Assessment and Early Literacy (Emerging Readers and Writers). Reading Teacher, 42(8), 634–635. Retrieved from
  25. Subong, Jr. P. E. (2005). Statistics for research. Rex Book Store, Inc. Retrieved from
  26. Tabuena, A. (2019). Effectiveness of Classroom Assessment Techniques in Improving Performance of Students in Music and Piano. Global Researchers Journal, 6(1), 68-78.
  27. Tabuena, A. (2020a). Perception of the Students between the School’s Support in Academics and Sports towards the Promotion and Sustainability of Sports Activities. 4, 630–634.
  28. Tabuena, A. (2020b). Functional Approach as a Beginning Method for Teaching and Learning Piano Accompaniment in Music. 5, 51–54.
  29. Tabuena, A. C. (2020b). A literature review on the construction of a teacher-made assessment tool in music listening response competency for junior high school K to 12 music curriculum. The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies, 8(4), 157–163. 24940/theijhss/2020/v8/i4/HS2004-065
  30. Tabuena, Almighty C., Bartolome, J. E. M., & Taboy, D. K. (2020). Preferred Teaching Practices Among Junior High School Teachers and Its Impact Towards Readiness of Grade Seven Students in the Secondary School (SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 3719544). Social Science Research Network.
  31. Tavakoli, M., & Baniasad-Azad, S. (2017). Teachers’ conceptions of effective teaching and their teaching practices: A mixed-method approach. Teachers and Teaching, 23(6), 674–688.
  32. Zeng, J., Pang, X., Zhang, L., Medina, A., & Rozelle, S. (2014). Gender Inequality in Education in China: A Meta-Regression Analysis. Contemporary Economic Policy, 32(2), 474–491.