Main Article Content


India is the second-largest tribal population in the world. However, after the seven decades of independence, the tribal groups are disadvantaged and socially backward from the cycle of growth in many areas such as health, education, employment, and empowerment, and more. Among these, for tribal society, education is an essential requirement. The state and central governments have initiated several programs to educate tribal groups. Many of these programs have achieved only 10 percent of the targets. The vast numbers of tribal peoples are missing their education at various levels. They lag in education due to the high illiteracy rates among the tribal population relative to Scheduled Castes (S.C.s). Hence, the time has come to consider tribal education and inclusive growth seriously. In this context, the comprehensive literature review seeks to provide a contemporary overview of India's current status and challenging issues of tribal education. The paper is purely based on second-hand information from various research studies conducted in India and collected from different government sources. The outcomes are more helpful in implementing schemes that can improve tribal literacy and inclusive growth perspectives.


Tribal population policies literacy rate research studies inclusive growth education

Article Details

How to Cite
Velusamy, V. R. (2021). A Contemporary Overview about Status and Challenging Issues of Tribal Education in India. International Journal of Asian Education, 2(2), 277–284.


  1. Bagai, S., & Nundy, N. (2009). Tribal education: A fine balance. Mumbai, India: Darsa. Retrieved from www. darsareports-tribal-education.
  2. Banerjee, A., & Newman, A. (1994). Poverty, Incentives, and Development. The American Economic Review, 84(2), 211-215. Retrieve from
  3. Batra, P. (2005). Voice and Agency of Teachers: Missing Link in National Curriculum Framework. Economic and Political Weekly, 40, 4347-4356. Retrieve from
  4. Bhatty, K. (1998). Educational Deprivation in India: A Survey of Field Investigations. Economic and Political Weekly, 33, 1731-1740. Retrieve from
  5. Brahmanandam, T., and Bosu Babu, T. (2016). Educational Status among the Scheduled Tribes: Issues and Challenges. The NEHU Journal, XIV (2), 69-85. Retrieve from
  6. Brahmanandam, T., and Bosu Babu., T. (2015). State of Primary Education among tribals: Issues and Challenges. Artha Journal of Social Science, 14 (4), 127-144.
  7. Burman, B.K Roy. (2009). 'What Has Driven the Tribals of Central India to political Extremism Mainstream, XLVII (44). Retrieve from,
  8. Chandra, Mahesh (2015). Tribal Development in India: An Overview. International Contemporary Research Journal in Management and Social Science, 1(2).
  9. Chattopadhyay, A and Durdhawale, V. (2009). Primary schooling in a tribal district of Maharashtra: Some Policy relevance. Journal of Education Administration and Policy Studies, 1 (5), 70-78. Retrieve from
  10. Chowdhury, M., and Banerjee, A. (2013). Right to education of Scheduled Tribe: An Indian perspective. International Journal of Educational Administration and Policy Studies, 5(7), 128-134. Retrieve from
  11. Desai S, Kulkarni V. (2008). Changing educational inequalities in India in the context of affirmative action's Demography, 45(2), 245-270. Retrieve from
  12. Dreze J (2006). Foreword. In: GC Rath (Ed.): Tribal Development in India. New Delhi: Sage. Retrieve from
  13. Dreze J, Sen, A. (1995). India: Economic Development and Social Opportunity. Oxford University Press, New Delhi. Retrieve from
  14. Ghosh, Arun Kumar (2007). The Gender Gap in Literacy and Education among the Scheduled Tribes in Jharkhand and West Bengal. Sociological Bulletin, 56 (1), 109-125. Retrieve from
  15. Government of India (1986). National Policy on Education. New Delhi: Ministry of Human Resource Development. Retrieve from
  16. Goyal, P. (2016). Neglect and abuse in the name of education. Economic and Political Weekly, II (49), 12-14.
  17. Gupta, M., and Padel, F. (2019). Indigenous Knowledge and Value Systems in India: Holistic Analysis of Tribal Education and the Challenge of Decentralising Control. Retrieve from
  18. Jha, J., and Jhingran, D. (2002). Elementary Education for the Poorest and Other Deprived Groups, Centre for Policy Research. New Delhi. Retrieve from
  19. Kumar, S. (2017). Education of children and civil strife in Chhattisgarh. Economic and Political Weekly, 36, 26-29. Retrieve from
  20. Maharatna, A., & Hawley, J. S. (2005). Demographic perspectives on India's tribes. Oxford University Press. Retrieve from
  21. Nair, P. (2007). "Whose Public Action? Analyzing Inter-Sectoral Collaboration for Service Delivery: Identification of Programmes for study in India". International Development Department, Economic and Social Research Council.
  22. Narayan, B and Chakraborty, U.K., (2019) A Content Analysis of Education Among the Scheduled Tribes in Jharkhand: Emphasising Government's Perspective and Conscientiousness, M. C. Behera (ed.), Shifting Perspectives in Tribal Studies, 203-232. Retrieve from
  23. Nithya, N.R (2014). Globalization and the plight of Tribals: In the case of Kerala, India: The Dawn Journal, 3 (1). Retrieve from
  24. Panda, S. (2018). Promoting Science Communication among Scheduled Tribe Students through Museum. Journal of Scientific Temper, 6 (3-4), 166-176. Retrieve from
  25. Patra, S., and Panigrahi, N. (2018). Educational Status of the Marginalized: A Study among the Santals of Paschim Medinipur District, West Bengal, Journal of Social Sciences, 57(1-3): 22-28. Retrieve from
  26. Pradhan, S.K. (2011). Problems of Tribal Education in India. Kurukshetra, 59 (7), 26-31.
  27. Preet, Sagar. (1995). Tribal Problems: a Gandhian Perspective, Indian Anthropologist, 24(2), 29-88. Retrieve from
  28. Ramachandran, V., & Bhattacharjea, S. (2009). Attend to Primary Schoolteachers! Economic and Political Weekly, 44(31), 17-20. Retrieve from
  29. Rami, Gaurang. (2012). Status of Primary Education in the Tribal Districts of Gujarat: A Case Study of the Dangs District, International Journal of Rural Studies, 19(1), 1-6. Retrieve from
  30. Rana (2003). State of Primary Education in West Bengal, Economic and Political Weekly, 38(22), 2159-2164. Retrieve from
  31. Rani, M. (2000). Tribal languages and tribal education. SOCIAL ACTION-NEW DELHI-, 50(4), 414-419.
  32. Roy Burman, B. K. (2009). What has driven the tribals of Central India to Political Extremism. Mainstream, October 17, 2009.
  33. Rupavath, R. (2016). Access to Education: Education Status of Scheduled Tribes in Andhra Pradesh: Attainments and Challenges. Review of Public Administration and Management, 4, 183. Retrieve from
  34. Sahay, B.N (1998): Approach to Tribal Welfare in Post-Independence Era, Indian Anthropologist, 28 (1), 3-81. Retrieve from
  35. Sahu, J. (2013). Educational Achievement in Tribal Area through PPP: A Case Study of Odisha. Odisha Review. 73-79. Retrieve from
  36. Sen, A. (1999). Development as Freedom. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Retrieve from
  37. Sen, Rahul (1992). Tribal Policy of India, Indian Anthropologist, 22(2), 77-90. Retrieve from
  38. Sujatha, K. (2002). Education among Scheduled Tribes. In Govinda, R. (ed.), India Education Report: A Profile of Basic Education. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Retrieve from
  39. Tilak, J. B. (2000). Financing Elementary Education in India in the 1990s. In Second National Workshop on EFA. Retrieve from
  40. Verma, M. M. (1996). Tribal Development in India: Programmes and Perspectives; Mittal for Mittal Publication, New Delhi. Retrieve from
  41. World Bank (1990). Primary Education: A World Bank Policy Paper. Washington D.C: World Bank. Retrieve from