Main Article Content


The Culling System in every higher education institution ensures that only students who meet specific academic or performance standards remain in the program, which helps uphold the program's standards and effectiveness. Thus, this study aims to delve into the lived experiences of the students who were culled out from the board programs offered by the Kapalong College of Agriculture, Sciences and Technology in which qualitative research utilizing a phenomenological approach was utilized. The participants were the 14 students who were culled out from the board programs being offered by Kapalong College of Agriculture, Sciences and Technology who were purposively selected. Further, there were five (5) participants for the in-depth interview and another five (5) for the focus group discussion. The data gathered were analyzed through the use of coding and thematic analysis. The study is deemed beneficial since it can provide valuable insights into the effectiveness of culling practices in board programs wherein higher authorities can use this information to evaluate existing policies and programs related to student retention and support. It may lead to identifying potential flaws or areas for improvement in the current system.


Culled Out Students Board Programs Phenomenology

Article Details

How to Cite
Muegna, K. J. R., Escandallo, J. C., & Espinosa, D. L. (2023). Accounts of Culled Out Students from Board Programs: A Phenomenological Inquiry. International Journal of Asian Education, 4(3), 157–166.


  1. Astin, A. W. (1998). The changing American college student: Thirty-year trends, 1966-1996. The review of higher education, 21(2), 115-135.
  2. Bandhana, D., & Sharma, D. P. (2010). Home environment, mental health and academic achievement among Hr. secondary school students. J. Educ. Pract, 1, 1-7.
  3. Busetto, L., Wick, W., & Gumbinger, C. (2020). How to use and assess qualitative research methods. Neurological Research and practice, 2, 1-10.
  4. Choudhury, S., & Pattnaik, S. (2020). Emerging themes in e-learning: A review from the stakeholders' perspective. Computers & Education, 144, 103657.
  5. Creswell, J. W., & Poth, C. N. (2016). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Sage publications.
  6. Dennis, J. M., Phinney, J. S., & Chuateco, L. I. (2005). The role of motivation, parental support, and peer support in the academic success of ethnic minority first-generation college students. Journal of college student development, 46(3), 223-236.
  7. Denovan, A., & Macaskill, A. (2013). An interpretative phenomenological analysis of stress and coping in first year undergraduates. British Educational Research Journal, 39(6), 1002-1024.
  8. Giorgi, A. (2009). The descriptive phenomenological method in psychology: A modified Husserlian approach. Duquesne university press.
  9. Gottner, A. (2021). The Complicated Road from Academic Dismissal to Degree Completion: A Phenomenological Exploration of the Student Experience (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Nebraska-Lincoln). Retrieved from:
  10. Heider, F. (1958). The psychology of interpersonal relations. Psychology Press.
  11. Hoell, S. M. (2006). The undergraduate experience of turnaround after academic suspension: A phenomenological analysis. University of Montana.
  12. Houle, N. (2013). Academic suspension and student adjustment: How students make meaning of their experiences.
  13. Muola, J. M. (2010). A study of the relationship between academic achievement motivation and home environment among standard eight pupils. Educational Research and Reviews, 5(5), 213-217.
  14. Nowell, L. S., Norris, J. M., White, D. E., & Moules, N. J. (2017). Thematic analysis: Striving to meet the trustworthiness criteria. International journal of qualitative methods, 16(1), 1609406917733847.
  15. Ost, B., Pan, W., & Webber, D. (2018). The returns to college persistence for marginal students: Regression discontinuity evidence from university dismissal policies. Journal of Labor Economics, 36(3), 779-805.
  16. Parveen, A. (2007). Effect of home environment on personality and academic achievement of students of grade 12 in Rawalpindi division. National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad.
  17. Pascarella, E. T., & Terenzini, P. T. (2005). How College Affects Students: A Third Decade of Research. Volume 2. Jossey-Bass, An Imprint of Wiley. 10475 Crosspoint Blvd, Indianapolis, IN 46256.
  18. Qutoshi, S. B. (2018). Phenomenology: A philosophy and method of inquiry. Journal of Education and Educational Development, 5(1).
  19. Thangeda, A., Baratiseng, B., & Mompati, T. (2016). Education for Sustainability: Quality Education Is a Necessity in Modern Day. How Far Do the Educational Institutions Facilitate Quality Education?. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(2), 9-17.
  20. Sneyers, E., & De Witte, K. (2017). The effect of an academic dismissal policy on dropout, graduation rates and student satisfaction. Evidence from the Netherlands. Studies in Higher Education, 42(2), 354-389.
  21. Spradlin, T. E., Rutkowski, D. J., Burroughs, N. A., & Lang, J. R. (2010). Effective college access, persistence and completion programs, and strategies for underrepresented student populations: Opportunities for scaling up. Center for Evaluation & Education Policy, Indiana University.
  22. Starks, H., & Brown Trinidad, S. (2007). Choose your method: A comparison of phenomenology, discourse analysis, and grounded theory. Qualitative health research, 17(10), 1372-1380.
  23. Swail, W. S. (2004, June). The art of student retention: A handbook for practitioners and administrators. In Educational Policy Institute. Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board 20th Annual Recruitment and Retention Conference Austin, TX June (Vol. 21, No. 877, pp. 1-39).
  24. Tinto, V. (2012). Leaving college: Rethinking the causes and cures of student attrition. University of Chicago press.,+V.+(1975).+Leaving+college:+Rethinking+the+causes+and+cures+of+student+attrition.+Chicago:+The+University+Press&ots=yf8VO6VZvV&sig=FeVkhpjCVxv3CEsOsP8zuUC018U
  25. Upcraft, M. L., & Schuh, J. H. (1996). Assessment in Student Affairs: A Guide for Practitioners. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series. Jossey-Bass Inc., Publishers, 350 Sansome St., San Francisco, CA 94104.
  26. Weiner, B. (1985). An attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion. Psychological review, 92(4), 548.