Main Article Content


The research purpose of achieving quality education is that enhancing teachers' performance is a must since it determines students' learning and academic achievement. On the other hand, peer observation (PO) is a practical tool used in a classroom where two peers work together and observe each other's teaching, and accordingly, the observer gives constructive feedback to the observed teacher, helping bring about positive changes in the instruction. Therefore, this paper seeks to explore the effectiveness of peer observation and formulate a framework for its implementation for improving the teaching performance of Bangladeshi college teachers. In this regard, the researcher used a secondary data analysis method in which around 75 papers, including journal articles, conference proceedings, and research reports of different authors and organizations, were studied, analyzed, and discussed in this paper. Besides, two more case studies in international contexts were elaborate to review. After analyzing the documents, the researcher divided the issue into several themes and sub-themes. The result found that the PO's implementation would enhance the teachers' performance, and consequently, the students' success would be augmented. Later, deliberating on different PO models, an implementation plan for PO in Bangladeshi colleges context was devised and developed.


Bangladeshi Colleges peer observation quality education teachers' performance Bangladeshi colleges

Article Details

How to Cite
Paul, A. K. (2021). Enhancing Performance of Teachers through Peer Observation: A Critical Review for Implementation In Bangladeshi Colleges. International Journal of Asian Education, 2(1), 64–78.


  1. Adshead, L., White, P. T., & Stephenson, D. A. (2006). Introducing peer observation of teaching to GP teachers: A questionnaire study. Medical teacher, 28(2), e68–e73.
  2. Alam, G. M., & Shahjamal, M. M. (2008). The role of technological transformation in education at network age for human resource development. Edu. Policy. Fall. Retrieved from
  3. Ali, S. A. (2012). Peer observation of teaching (POT) for quality assurance in EFL context. New York Science Journal, 5(11), 15-22.
  4. Anglin, L., & Anglin, K. (2008). Business education, teaching, and the millennials. Proceedings of the Academy of Business Disciplines. Retrieved from
  5. Atkinson, D. J., & Bolt, S. (2010). Using Teaching Observations to Reflect Upon and Improve Teaching Practice in Higher Education. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 10(3), 1–19. Retrieved from
  6. Bell, A., & Mladenovic, R. (2008). The benefits of peer observation of teaching for tutor development. Higher Education, 55(6), 735–752.
  7. Bell, A., Mladenovic, R., & Segara, R. (2010). Supporting the reflective practice of tutors: What do tutors reflect on? Teaching in Higher Education, 15(1), 57–70. Retrieved from
  8. Bell, M. (2001). Supported reflective practice: A programme of peer observation and feedback for academic teaching development. International Journal for Academic Development, 6(1), 29–39. Retrieved from
  9. Bell, M. (2012). Peer Observation Partnerships in Higher Education. Senior Deputy Vice-Chancellor and Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Education) - Papers. Retrieved from
  10. Blackmore, J. A. (2005). A critical evaluation of peer review via teaching observation within higher education. International Journal of Educational Management, 19(3), 218–232.
  11. Borich, G. D. (1999). Observation Skills for Effective Teaching. Upper Saddle River. Prentice-Hall. Retrieved from
  12. Bowers, D. L. (2000). Teachers' use of peer observation and feedback as a means of professional development. 1. Retrieved from
  13. Byrne, J., Brown, H., & Challen, D. (2010). Peer development as an alternative to peer observation: A tool to enhance professional development. International Journal for Academic Development, 15(3), 215–228.
  14. Carbone, A. (2014). A peer-assisted teaching scheme to improve units with critically low student satisfaction: Opportunities and challenges. Higher Education Research & Development, 33(3), 425–439.
  15. Carroll, C., & O'Loughlin, D. (2014). Peer observation of teaching: Enhancing academic engagement for new participants. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 51(4), 446–456.
  16. Chamberlain, J. M., D'Artrey, M., & Rowe, D.-A. (2011). Peer observation of teaching: A decoupled process. Active Learning in Higher Education, 12(3), 189–201.
  17. Chism, N. V. N. (2007). Why introducing or sustaining peer review of teaching is so hard, and what you can do about it. The Department Chair, 18(2), 6–8.
  18. Chowdhury, R., & Sarkar, M. (2018). Education in Bangladesh: Changing Contexts and Emerging Realities. In R. Chowdhury, M. Sarkar, F. Mojumder, & M. M. Roshid (Eds.), Engaging in Educational Research: Revisiting Policy and Practice in Bangladesh (pp. 1–18). Springer.
  19. Cole, R. E. (2003). New organizational designs for sustainable quality improvement. Proceedings from the 6th International Conference on Quality Management and Organisational Development (QMOD). Retrieved from
  20. Cooper, P., & Bell, M. (2009). Peer observation of teaching: Engineering new skills and collegiality. Faculty of Engineering - Papers (Archive), 924–930. Retrieved from
  21. Cosh, J. (1999). Peer observation: A reflective model. ELT Journal, 53(1), 22–27.
  22. Davis, T. S. (2011). Peer observation: A faculty initiative. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 3(2), 106–115.
  23. Day, R. R. (2013). Peer Observation and Reflection in the ELT Practicum. Online Submission. Retrieved from
  24. Dillon, H., James, C., Prestholdt, T., Peterson, V., Salomone, S., & Anctil, E. (2020). Development of a formative peer observation protocol for STEM faculty reflection. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 45(3), 387–400.
  25. Donnelly, R. (2007). Perceived Impact of Peer Observation of Teaching in Higher Education. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 19(2), 117–129. Retrieved from
  26. Fatemipour, H. (2013). The Efficiency of the Tools Used for Reflective Teaching in ESL Contexts. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 93, 1398–1403.
  27. Fletcher, J. A. (2018). Peer Observation of Teaching: A Practical Tool in Higher Education. The Journal of Faculty Development, 32(1), 51–64. Retrieved from
  28. Gaies, S., & Bowers, R. (1990). Clinical supervision of language teaching: The supervisor as trainer and educator. Second Language Teacher Education, 167–181. Retrieved from
  29. Gálvez Suarez, E., & Milla Toro, R. (2018). Teaching Performance Evaluation Model: Preparation for Student Learning within the Framework for Teacher Good Performance. Journal of Educational Psychology - Propositos y Representaciones, 6(2), 431–452. Retrieved from
  30. Garton, B. L., Spain, J. N., Lamberson, W. R., & Spiers, D. E. (1999). Learning Styles, Teaching Performance, and Student Achievement: A Relational Study. Journal of Agricultural Education, 40(3), 11–20. Retrieved from
  31. Gosling, D. (2002). Models of Peer Observation of Teaching. Retrieved from
  32. Hammersley‐Fletcher *, L., & Orsmond, P. (2004). Evaluating our peers: Is peer observation a meaningful process? Studies in Higher Education, 29(4), 489–503.
  33. Haque, M. A. (2012). Performance Appraisal System of Bangladesh Civil Service: An Analysis of its Efficacy. International Public Management Review, 13(1), 38–60. Retrieved from
  34. Huston, T., & Weaver, C. L. (2008). Peer Coaching: Professional Development for Experienced Faculty. Innovative Higher Education, 33(1), 5–20.
  35. Irvine, K., Weigelhofer, G., Popescu, I., Pfeiffer, E., Păun, A., Drobot, R., Gettel, G., Staska, B., Stanica, A., Hein, T., & Habersack, H. (2016). Educating for action: Aligning skills with policies for sustainable development in the Danube river basin. Science of The Total Environment, 543, 765–777.
  36. Islam, M. (2013). English Medium Instruction in the Private Universities in Bangladesh. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 3(1), 126–137.
  37. Jones, C. A. (2005). Assessment for learning. Learning and Skills Development Agency. Retrieved from
  38. Jones, G. (1993). What to do before the session: Some guidance on observation of teaching in higher education. Observing Teaching, 31–33. Retrieved from
  39. Karabağ, S. (2000). Attitudes of teachers and administrators towards peer observation. Doctoral Dissertation, Bilkent University. Retrieved from
  40. Kinchin, I. M. ; (2006, April 3). Evolving diversity within a model of peer observation at a UK university. Education-Line. Retrieved from
  41. Kohut, G. F., Burnap, C., & Yon, M. G. (2007). Peer Observation of Teaching: Perceptions of the Observer and the Observed. College Teaching, 55(1), 19–25.
  42. Lange, D. L. (1990). A blueprint for a teacher development program. Second Language Teacher Education, 245–268. Retrieved from
  43. Lomas, L., & Kinchin, I. (2006). Developing a peer observation program with university teachers. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 18(3), I204-214. Retrieved from
  44. Marczely, B. (2002). Supervision in Education: A Differentiated Approach with Legal Perspectives Instructor's Manual. R&L Education. Retrieved from's-Manual
  45. Martin, G. A., & Double, J. M. (1998). Developing Higher Education Teaching Skills Through Peer Observation and Collaborative Reflection. Innovations in Education and Training International, 35(2), 161–170.
  46. McMahon, T., Barrett, T., & O'Neill, G. (2007). Using observation of teaching to improve quality: Finding your way through the muddle of competing conceptions, confusion of practice and mutually exclusive intentions. Teaching in Higher Education, 12(4), 499–511.
  47. Munson, B. R. (1998). Peers Observing Peers: The Better Way to Observe Teachers. Contemporary Education, 69(2), 108–110. Retrieved from
  48. Nasrin, S., & Rahman, M. M. (2019). Politicization of student politics in Bangladesh: Historical experiences and contemporary trends. Journal of Social Science Studies, 6(2), 17–42. Retrieved from
  49. Norbury, L. (2001). Peer observation of teaching: A method for improving teaching quality. New Review of Academic Librarianship, 7(1), 87–99.
  50. Osamwonyi, E. F. (2016). In-Service Education of Teachers: Overview, Problems and the Way Forward. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(26), 83–87. Retrieved from
  51. Purohit, B., & Martineau, T. (2016). Is the Annual Confidential Report system effective? A study of the government appraisal system in Gujarat, India. Human Resources for Health, 1(14), 1–11.
  52. Richards, J. C. (2017). Teaching English through English: Proficiency, Pedagogy and Performance. RELC Journal, 48(1), 7–30.
  53. Richards, J. C., & Farrell, T. S. C. (2011). Practice Teaching: A Reflective Approach. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from
  54. Richards, P. J. C., Richards, J. C., Farrell, T. S. C., & Farrell, P. T. S. C. (2005). Professional Development for Language Teachers: Strategies for Teacher Learning. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from
  55. Robinson, S. R. (n.d.). Peer observation of teaching: Barriers to successful implementation. Occasional Papers on Learning and Teaching at UniSA-Paper, 11., 2010. Retrieved from
  56. Shortland, S. (2004). Peer observation: A tool for staff development or compliance? Journal of Further and Higher Education, 28(2), 219–228.
  57. Shortland, S. (2010). Feedback within Peer Observation: Continuing Professional Development and Unexpected Consequences. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 47(3), 295–304. Retrieved from
  58. Stafyarakis, M., & Eldridge, D. (2002). HRD and performance management. MSc in Human Resource Development Reading, 5. Retrieved from
  59. Sullivan, P. B., Buckle, A., Nicky, G., & Atkinson, S. H. (2012). Peer observation of teaching as a faculty development tool. BMC Medical Education, 12(1). Retrieved from
  60. Tenenberg, J. (2016). Learning through observing peers in practice. Studies in Higher Education, 41(4), 756–773.
  61. Thomson, K., Bell, A., & Hendry, G. (2015). Peer observation of teaching: The case for learning just by watching. Higher Education Research & Development, 34(5), 1060–1062.
  62. Tice, J. (2004). Reflective teaching: Exploring our own classroom practice. Teaching English Site, British Council, 1–3. Retrieved from
  63. Todd, M. A. (2017). Peer observation as a tool for professional development. Retrieved from
  64. Tosriadi, T., Asib, A., Marmanto, S., & Azizah, U. A. (2018). Peer Observation as a Means to Develop Teachers' Professionalism. International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding, 5(3), 151–158.
  65. Wankat, P. C., & Oreovicz, F. S. (1993). Models of cognitive development: Piaget and Perry. Teaching Engineering, 264–283. Retrieved from
  66. Wenglinsky, H. (2002). The Link Between Teacher Classroom Practices and Student Academic Performance. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 10(0), 12.
  67. Whitlock, W., & Rumpus, A. (2004). Peer observation: Collaborative teaching quality enhancement. Educational Initiative Centre Guide. Retrieved from
  68. Wilkerson, L., & Lewis, K. G. (1988). Classroom observation: The observer as collaborator. A Handbook for New Practitioners, 95–98. Retrieved from
  69. Wilkins, E. A., & Shin, E.-K. (2011). Peer Feedback: Who, What, When, Why, and How. Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 76(6), 49–53. Retrieved from
  70. Wilson, L., & Easen, P. (1995). 'Teacher Needs' and Practice Development: Implications for in‐classroom support. British Journal of In-Service Education, 21(3), 273–284.